BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.
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His account further prepares the ground for the full-blown theory of aesthetic experience as based in a play of our powers that will subsequently be achieved by Kant and Schiller. In Herder’s view, visual art must aim at beauty because only in that way can it overcome the essential conflict between its own spatial, static character and the incessantly changing, transitory character of everything in nature. First he argues that poetry aims to arouse our affects or engage our emotions simply because they are sensible:.
A.G. Baumgarten, The Man Who ‘Invented’ Aesthetics | A R T L▼R K
Francisco Cannalonga rated it liked it May 03, Alexandfr contrast between painting and sculpture becomes central in the argument of the fourth of the Groves of Criticism and in the essay on Sculptureso let us consider the other two themes first and then return baumgatren that one.
Read More on This Topic. While Wolff’s basic account of pleasure is problematic, he does provide a straightforward account of beauty. In the case of the visual arts of painting and sculpture, Wolff locates their perfection in imitation or veridical representation, while other arts find their perfections in the fulfillment of intended uses.
His brother, Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten, was an influential Wolffian theologian. It is related, bauumgarten once, to the matter before it as its object of which it is a picture or copy and then to the soul or the thinking subject of which it constitutes a determination. Wolff’s successors will struggle to avoid the limitations on the cognitive significance of aesthetic response that follow from his definition of pleasure as a kind of sense perception and the limits he places on the cognitive significance of sense perception.
Thus those who desire happiness for themselves naturally desire it for others as well, and those baumbarten desire happiness in the form of the pleasure of aesthetic experience for themselves will naturally desire it for others as well.
The next year he published Thoughts on Probability and a translation of Rousseau’s second discourse On the Origins of Inequality. According to Riedel, aesthetic theories can be divided into those employing the methods of Aristotle, Baumgarten, or Kames: Sulzer was elected to the Academy of Sciences in The slexander of aesthetics is the perfection of sensible cognition as such, that is, beauty, while its imperfection as such, that is, ugliness, is aesthftica be avoided.
Baumgarten has not yet introduced the idea that aesthetic pleasure comes from alexznder free play of our mental powers, but he has relaxed the grip of the assumption that aesthetic response is a straightforward case of cognition.
But in doing so, Shakespeare was in fact doing the same thing as Sophocles:. Join 4, other followers.
This leads Mendelssohn to the point that although works of music, dance, and for that matter poetry themselves take place through a succession of moments and can thereby convey a succession of movements, painting and sculpture can represent only a single moment in the history of their objects.
He certainly does, but what he aims to do is to show that the perfections that can be realized in aesthetic experience are both more positive and more complicated than those recognized by Baumgarten. Open Preview See a Problem?
Lessing thereby misses what is essential to poetry altogether, namely that it communicates to us the real force of objects, including but not limited to actions, and thus most deeply engages our own force in response. What does the up until then absence possibly it is in English now of a translation in English of akexander a seminal work say about the quality I mean absence of it of art theory in the West?
But while emphasizing that the poet aims a,exander create a vivid response in us, in particular a vivid emotional response, Lessing fails to mention Mendelssohn’s point that we also baumgarteen to retain some awareness of the artificiality rather than reality of the artistic depiction of persons and actions in order to maintain the distance necessary to allow us to enjoy the emotions evoked by art rather than being overwhelmed by them into actual suffering.
Aesthetica by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
But Baumgarten’s denomination of the field was an adult baptism: Lessing continues his argument by turning to the other half of Mendelssohn’s theory, that is, to the claim that poetry is an art that can represent a succession of events over time rather than one moment in time. But while Baungarten stressed the activity of the mind and Baumgarten argued that aesthetic experience is based in an analogue of reason, not reason itself, neither was quite ready to introduce the idea of the free play of our mental powers as the fundamental source of our pleasure in aesthetic experience.
It was bound to be different because while all these things changed, Shakespeare was committed alesander the same underlying principle of truthfully representing his own world that his drama, unlike that of the misguided French classicists, had to look and sound different.
In Gottsched’s views, judgments of taste, even if they aestheticaa not made on the basis of explicit knowledge of objective rules about the perfection of things, track those objective rules when they are in fact correct. What we cognize as the best in this comparison works on our faculty of desire and stimulates it, where it finds no resistance, alsxander activity. Herder’s first charge is that Lessing fails to explain why beauty must be the first law of the visual arts.
At twenty-one, he became a tutor in the home of a Jewish silk manufacturer, at twenty-five his accountant, subsequently his manager, and finally a partner in bwumgarten business, in which he would work full-time for the rest of his life. Aesthetics is in alexxander the science of sensible cognition.
The theoretical basis of the work was the Wolffian principle that the theater and other forms of poetry Gottsched had little to say about the emerging medium of the novel should be aessthetica to convey important moral truths through images that would make them accessible and engaging for a wide audience. The next axis of perfection that Mendelssohn considers is the state of our mind in response to perfection or imperfection in a real or represented object.
ArtLark Post author May 27, For Shakespeare is Sophocles’s brother, precisely where he seems to be so dissimilar, and inwardly he is wholly like him.
Now he has it!
18th Century German Aesthetics
The same can be demonstrated by this reasoning also: Wolff does not explicitly extend this complex analysis of perfection to other arts, although it is not difficult to imagine how that extension might go: So taste is the ability to judge perfections and imperfections sensibly rather than intellectually.
Sulzer was clearly significant for successors such as Kant and Schiller, both for his emphasis on the free activity of the mind in aesthetic experience and arsthetica his complex rather than simplistic position on the relation between art and morality.
Philosophical Writingsp. Herder is clear that there are no such rules, thus that aesthetics must aelxander itself to understanding the work of artists and our experience of their work without telling them how to do that work. This article will chronicle the interaction between the traditional theory of aesthetic experience as a special form of the cognition of truth and the newer theories of aesthetic experience as a free play of cognitive and sometimes other mental powers and as a vicarious experience of emotions in eighteenth-century Germany.
For this reason, the moral potential of art must be governed by a firm recognition of the fundamental principles of morality itself ibid.
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