Anatomical terminology - Wikipedia
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. .. Body movements are always described in relation to the anatomical position of the body: upright stance, with. Start studying Anatomy Terms of Relationship and Comparison, Laterality, and Movement. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other . Table A & P Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.
Intermediate — means between—your heart is intermediate to your lungs.
Caudal — at or near the tail or posterior end of the body. Visceral — may be used instead of deep. There are also terms that describe specific body parts. Palmar describes the palm side of the hand. Dorsal describes the back side of the hand. Plantar describes the bottom of the foot. Anatomical Reference Planes A plane is a two-dimensional surface — its dimensions are length and width.
The body reference planes are used to locate or describe the location of structures in the body. Brain scans are often of sagittal plane slices from ear to ear. Abdominal CAT scans are often transverse plane slices like a stack of coins. The three basic planes intersect at right angles to each other. When the three basic planes intersect in the center of the body as seen in the image to the right they can be used to describe various relationships within the body.
Main Reference Planes Sagittal plane median, wheel — this vertical top to bottom plane divides the body into left and right sides; a plane that divides the body down the middle into equal left and right sides is the Median Sagittal Plane.
Body Cavities Body cavities are areas in the body that contain our internal organs. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two main cavities. The dorsal cavity is on the posterior back side of the body and contains the cranial cavity and spinal cavity.
Anatomical Terms Of Relationship And Comparison Flashcards by ProProfs
In human anatomy, dorsal, caudal and posterior mean the same thing. The ventral cavity is on the front anterior of the body and is divided into the thoracic cavity chest and abdominopelvic cavity.
Dorsal Cavity The dorsal cavity is further divided into subcavities: Ventral Cavity The ventral cavity is on the front of the trunk. The diaphragm the main muscle of breathing divides the ventral cavity into two simple subcavities: It is further divided into the pleural cavities left and right which contain the lungs, bronchi, and the mediastinum which contains the heart, pericardial membranes, large vessels of the heart, trachea windpipeupper esophagus, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and other blood vessels and nerves.
The abdominal cavity is between the diaphragm and the pelvis. It is lined with a membrane and contains the stomach, lower part of the esophagus, small and large intestines except sigmoid and rectumspleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidneys and ureters. The pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs and the rectum.
The thoracic cavity is open at the top and the abdominal cavity is open at the bottom. Both cavities are bound on the back by the spine. Even though their location is defined, the shape of these cavities can change.
How they change is very different. Breathing is the main way the shape of these two cavities changes. The abdominal cavity changes shape similar to a water-filled balloon. When you squeeze the balloon, the shape changes as the balloon bulges. The abdominal cavity can also change shape based on volume—that is how much you eat and drink.
The more you eat and drink, the harder it is for the diaphragm to compress the abdominal cavity—which is why it is harder to breathe after a large meal. The type of movement that can be produced at a synovial joint is determined by its structural type.
Movement types are generally paired, with one being the opposite of the other. Body movements are always described in relation to the anatomical position of the body: Flexion and extensionwhich refer to a movement that decreases flexion or increases extension the angle between body parts. For example, when standing up, the knees are extended. Abduction and adduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure away from abduction or towards adduction the midline of the body or limb.
For example, a star jump requires the legs to be abducted.
Internal rotation or medial rotation and external rotation or lateral rotation refers to rotation towards internal or away from external the center of the body. For example, the Lotus position posture in yoga requires the legs to be externally rotated.
Elevation and depression refer to movement in a superior elevation or inferior depression direction.
Primarily refers to movements involving the scapula and mandible. For example, plantarflexion occurs when pressing the brake pedal of a car.
Palmarflexion and dorsiflexion refer to movement of the flexion palmarflexion or extension dorsiflexion of the hand at the wrist. For example, prayer is often conducted with the hands dorsiflexed. Pronation and supination refer to rotation of the forearm or foot so that in the anatomical position the palm or sole is facing anteriorly supination or posteriorly pronation.
For example, if a person makes a "thumbs up" gesture, supination will cause the thumb to point away from the body midline and the fingers and plam to be upwards, while pronation will cause the thumb to point towards the body midline with the back of the hand upwards.
Eversion and inversion refer to movements that tilt the sole of the foot away from eversion or towards inversion the midline of the body. Anatomical terms of muscle The biceps brachii flex the lower arm. The brachioradialisin the forearm, and brachialislocated deep to the biceps in the upper arm, are both synergists that aid in this motion. Muscle action that moves the axial skeleton work over a joint with an origin and insertion of the muscle on respective side. The insertion is on the bone deemed to move towards the origin during muscle contraction.
Muscles are often present that engage in several actions of the joint; able to perform for example both flexion and extension of the forearm as in the biceps and triceps respectively. For example, an extension of the lower arm is performed by the triceps as the agonist and the biceps as the antagonist which contraction will perform flexion over the same joint. Muscles that work together to perform the same action are called synergists.
In the above example synergists to the biceps can be the brachioradialis and the brachialis muscle. Gross anatomy of muscles The skeletal muscles of the body typically come in seven different general shapes.
This figure shows the human body with the major muscle groups labeled. The gross anatomy of a muscle is the most important indicator of its role in the body. One particularly important aspect of gross anatomy of muscles is pennation or lack thereof. In most muscles, all the fibers are oriented in the same direction, running in a line from the origin to the insertion.
In pennate muscles, the individual fibers are oriented at an angle relative to the line of action, attaching to the origin and insertion tendons at each end. Because the contracting fibers are pulling at an angle to the overall action of the muscle, the change in length is smaller, but this same orientation allows for more fibers thus more force in a muscle of a given size.
- Anatomical terminology
- Anatomical Terms of Relationship and Comparison
- Anatomical Terms Of Relationship And Comparison
Pennate muscles are usually found where their length change is less important than maximum force, such as the rectus femoris. The tough, fibrous epimysium of skeletal muscle is both connected to and continuous with the tendons. In turn, the tendons connect to the periosteum layer surrounding the bones, permitting the transfer of force from the muscles to the skeleton. Together, these fibrous layers, along with tendons and ligaments, constitute the deep fascia of the body.
Joint Movement is not limited to only synovial joints, although they allow for most freedom. Muscles also run over symphysiswhich allow for movement in for example the vertebral column by compression of the intervertebral discs. Additionally, synovial joints can be divided into different types, depending on their axis of movement. Serous membrane Serous membrane A serous membrane also referred to as a serosa is a thin membrane that covers the walls of organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
The serous membranes have two layers; parietal and visceral, surrounding a fluid filled space. Between the parietal and visceral layers is a very thin, fluid-filled serous space, or cavity. For example, the parietal peritoneum surrounds the abdominal cavity. Older set of terminology shown in Parts of the Human Body: Labels of human body features displayed on images of actual human bodies, from which body hair and male facial hair has been removed.
Gray's anatomy for students. Terminologia Anatomica — International Anatomical Terminology.