Miep Gies :: The betrayal
Of the eight Jewish hiders, only Otto Frank returned after the war, as did the In Anne's diary it becomes clear that the Annex occupants also did not trust him. At first Anne really likes Mr Pfeffer, but later she can't stand him. In her diary she calls him Albert Dussel. In German, 'Dussel' means 'idiot' or 'donkey'. We don't. He added, “From what Otto [Frank] told me about Peter, he was very shy, but The Anne Frank Trust, meanwhile, said it was “dismayed” by the alleged had sexual relations and that the article was designed to upset people.
Ilse's family had a table tennis set, and Anne and Margot frequently went to her house to play. Wagner was the first of Anne's circle of friends to be deported. For all the admiring boys Anne was surrounded with during her school days, she said repeatedly in her diary that the only one she deeply cared about was Peter Schiff, whom she called "Petel". He was three years older than Anne and they had, according to Anne, been "inseparable" during the summer ofwhen Anne turned Then, Peter changed addresses and a new acquaintance slightly older than Peter convinced him Anne was "just a child".
Anne had several vivid dreams of Peter while in hiding, wrote about them in her diary, and realized herself that she saw Peter van Pels, at least partially, as a surrogate for Peter Schiff. Anne implies in her diary 12 January that Peter Schiff gave her a pendant as a gift, which she cherished from then on. Schiff was also a prisoner at Bergen-Belsen, though he was transported from there to Auschwitz before Anne and Margot arrived at Belsen. It is known for certain that he died in Auschwitz, although the exact date of his death is unclear.
Helmuth "Hello" Silberberg was the boy Anne was closest to at the time her family went into hiding, though they had only known each other about two weeks at that time. Born in Gelsenkirchen, Germanyhis parents sent him to Amsterdam to live with his grandparents, believing, like Otto Frank, that Hitler would respect The Netherlands' neutrality. Silberberg's grandfather, who disliked the name Helmuth, dubbed him "Hello".
Hello was 16 and adored Anne, but she wrote in her diary that she was "not in love with Hello, he is just a friend, or as mummy would say, one of my 'beaux'", though Anne also remarked in her diary on how much she enjoyed Hello's company, and she speculated that he might become "a real friend" over time.
Anne Frank’s sexual awakening fictionalized - Arts & Culture - Jerusalem Post
By a very convoluted series of events, including several narrow escapes from the Nazis, Hello eventually reunited with his parents in Belgium.
Belgium was also an occupied country, however, and he and his family were still "in hiding", though not under circumstances as difficult as the Franks'. The American forces liberated the town where the Silberbergs were hiding on 3 Septemberand Hello was free — tragically on the same day that Anne and her family left on the last transport from Westerbork to Auschwitz.
Hello emigrated to the United States after the war and was later known as Ed Silverberg. He died in at age The Geiringers lived on the opposite side of Merwedeplein, the square where the Franks' apartment was located, and Eva and Anne were almost exactly the same age. Eva was also a close friend of Sanne Ledermann's, and she knew both Anne and Margot. Eva described herself as an out-and-out tomboyand hence she was in awe of Anne's fashion sense and worldliness, but she was somewhat puzzled by Anne's fascination with boys.
But Anne had introduced Eva to Otto Frank when the Geiringers first came to Amsterdam "so you can speak German with someone", as Anne had said, and Eva never forgot Otto's warmth and kindness to her. Though they were acquainted on a first-name basis, Eva and Anne were not especially close, as they had different groups of friends aside from their mutual close friendship with Sanne Ledermann. Eva's brother Heinz was called up for deportation to labor camp on the same day as Margot Frank, and the Geiringers went into hiding at the same time the Franks did, though the Geiringer family split into two groups to do so - Eva and her mother in one location, and Heinz and his father at another.
Though hiding in two separate locations, all four of the Geiringers were betrayed on the same day, about three months before the Frank family.
- Anne Frank’s sexual awakening fictionalized
- List of people associated with Anne Frank
- Biographies - Albert Dussel
Eva survived Auschwitz, and when the Russians liberated Birkenauthe women's sector of the camp, she walked the mile-and-a-half distance to the men's camp to look for her father and brother, finding out much later that they had not survived the prisoner march out of Auschwitz. But when she entered the sick barracks of the men's camp, she recognized Otto Frank and had a warm reunion with him. Eva later wrote her autobiography Eva's Story: A Survivor's Tale by the Stepsister of Anne Frank which served as the inspiration for the development of a popular multimedia stage presentation about the Holocaust called And Then They Came for Me.
Eva also co-authored, with Barbara Powers, an autobiography targeted to younger readers and considered a suitable companion book to Anne's diary, titled Promise, in which she describes her family's happy life before going into hiding, and the experiences of living in hiding during the Nazi occupation, of going to the concentration camps, and finally, of going after liberation to the house where Heinz and their father had hidden, to retrieve the paintings Heinz had hidden beneath the floorboards there.
Heinz's paintings have been displayed in exhibitions in the United States and are now a part of a permanent exhibition in Amsterdam's war museum. After the war, Eva eventually built a new life in London with her husband of 60 years, Zvi Schloss, with whom she has three daughters.
She is mentioned in passing in Anne's diary, when Anne writes of dreaming that she and Peter Schiff are looking "at a book of drawings by Mary Bos". Mary and her parents had emigrated to the United States in February When they left, Anne wrote Mary a little poem as a goodbye note. Mary almost forgot about Anne, but after the war, when Anne's diary was published, she recalled her friend Anne from Montessori school. After the war, Mary wed Bob Schneider.
BBC - The Diary of Anne Frank - Biographies - Albert Dussel
They still live in the United States. Kitty remained a lifelong friend of Mary Bos'; they communicated regularly by letter, even after Mary moved permanently to the United States in [ citation needed ]. Schoolmates at Montessori, Anne and Kitty attended different schools after sixth grade, and hence they had drifted apart somewhat.
But shortly before the Franks went into hiding, Kitty visited Anne one day when Anne was in bed with a slight fever. They chatted the whole afternoon, and Kitty was impressed and pleased that the shrill, blunt, and boy-crazy friend she remembered from Montessori school had begun to mature into a somewhat more introspective and thoughtful girl.
This drew them closer together again. In the picture of Anne's 10th birthday referenced above under "Mary Bos", Kitty is the girl in the center with the dark pleated skirt.
Kitty's entire family survived internment at Theresienstadt, and, following her father's profession, Kitty became a dentist after the war. Lucia "Lucie" van Dijk was a Christian friend from the Montessori school. Lucie's mother was an adamant member of the NSB until the end of the war, but Lucie's disillusioned father left the party in Anne was shocked when the van Dijks became party members, but Otto Frank patiently explained to her that they could still be good people even if they had distasteful politics.
Lucie herself was briefly a rather conflicted and nervous member of the Jeugdstorm Nazi youth groupbut between her father's later abandonment of the party and her grandmother's absolute abhorrence of anything connected with National Socialism, Lucie dropped out of the Jeugdstorm in late She married after the war and has lived her whole life in Amsterdam. Ietje was the girl with whom Anne breathlessly shared the news concerning one of Anne's maternal uncles, who had been arrested by the Nazis and sent to labor camp he later was released and emigrated to the United States.
Being Christian, Ietje's family was able to live out the war in Amsterdam. Ietje became a teacher in later years and today lives in Amstelveenoutside of Amsterdam. Very little is known about either girl. Martha, on the far right in the photograph, survived the war. Martha was Anne's Montessori schoolmate and is seen in another picture with Anne taken during Anne's last term at Montessori.
Hansi was an exception among those who knew Anne - she was rather indifferent about Anne and idolized Anne's sister Margot instead. But Anne, Hansi, and Hansi's two sisters performed in a holiday play about a vain princess who is punished with a long nose for her vanity, until she sees the error of her ways.
Anne played the princess; Hansi noted that she played the role to perfection and had "natural charisma". Most people felt that Margot was the more beautiful of the Frank sisters, but Hansi observed that Anne, in her opinion, was prettier than Margot because "she [Anne] was always smiling".
Aside from those anecdotes, however, Hansi thought of Anne primarily as a noisy chatterboxand "a shrimp", and she was surprised and impressed with Anne's inner depth upon reading the diary much later. Hansi married a young physician after the war and, upon emigrating to America, changed her first name to "Laureen". She ultimately became a professor of foreign literature and languages at Portland State University. Gertrud Naumann was a friend, companion, and occasional babysitter of Anne and Margot's in Germany.
Although several years older than Margot, this friendly girl always played with both of the Frank sisters, and she was a neighborhood favorite of both Mr. After the Franks moved to AmsterdamGertrud kept contact with them through letters. Being ChristianGertrud and her family were able to avoid persecution in the war.The Diary Of Anne Frank - Mother and Mr Dussel - Twin Lakes Playhouse 2011
Gertrud was one of the first friends in Germany with whom Otto Frank got in touch after the war. InGertrud married Karl Trenz. She died in at the age of Four years older than Anne and hence, even older than Margot his rollicking sense of fun matched Anne's temperament perfectly, and he much preferred Anne as a playmate to the staid and proper Margot. Everyone called him "Buddy" except Anne, who always called him "Bernd". He was a very talented ice skaterwhich Anne hugely admired.
She even wrote an imaginary movie plot in her diary, wherein she would skate with Bernd, and included a sketch of the costume she would wear. After a long career as a professional skater and actor, he eventually became the head of the Anne Frank Fund in Basel a separate organization from the Anne Frank Foundation in Amsterdam.
Charlotte Kaletta, the common law wife of Fritz Pfefferwas not Jewish and therefore was able to remain in her Amsterdam apartment during the occupation. Kaletta and Pfeffer had been regulars at the Sunday afternoon "coffees" hosted by the Franks before the war, and hence she knew the entire Frank family. Miep Gies was especially touched by the devotion Pfeffer and Kaletta displayed to each other, and frequently passed letters from one to the other, an act which the other members of the household viewed as imprudent, but which Gies felt was important.
Kaletta's Jewish husband and their son both died in Auschwitz, but she held hope for some time after the war's end that Pfeffer had survived. When she learned of his death, she married him posthumously; Otto Frank made the arrangements for her.
Frank was always sympathetic to her and continued to offer her assistance, but in the mids she severed all contact with him, and with Miep and Jan Gies, because she was offended by the unflattering depiction of Pfeffer in Anne's diary and later by the way his character was written in the stage play The Diary of Anne Frank by Goodrich and Hackett. Charlotte died in Amsterdam on 13 June All of them survived the war. In his later years, Otto Frank lamented his decision to take his own family to the Netherlands.
Although his memories of the arrest were notably vivid, Silberbauer had not been told by his superior officer, Julius Dettmannwho had made the tip-off, only that it came from a "reliable source", and was unable to provide any information that would further a police investigation. Silberbauer's confession helped discredit claims that The Diary of Anne Frank was a forgery.
It is regrettable that Ahlers' widow, Martha van Kuik, was not interrogated extensively. She was an eye-witness and may have known and seen a great deal. She is still alive today. In her book she works towards identifying Ahlers as the betrayer, yet without explicitly labeling him as such.
It remains a speculative theory, woven into her pages. The Dutch television program Andere tijden, aired on March 12,explores Lee's theory. Willem van Maaren Stockroom manager Willem van Maaren was suspected of the betrayal for many years, although he never sided with the Nazis.
He stole goods and was generally considered dishonest. In Anne's diary it becomes clear that the Annex occupants also did not trust him. However, inquiries conducted after the war did not turn up any evidence that he was the betrayer. On the other hand, his eager inquisitiveness was very striking. In all sorts of ways, he tried to establish whether people had entered the stockroom in the evening or during the night. From what he noticed, he must have concluded that this was indeed the case.
Another very unusual moment occurred when he asked the employees whether there had previously been a Mr. Frank at the office. It is unknown how he came to that name, or why he asked that question. Van Maaren supplied goods to various customers, but it cannot be determined whether Ahlers was one of these. That Ahlers and Van Maaren knew each other, so that Van Maaren may have tried to obtain information for Ahlers, is yet another theory that sounds plausible but that cannot be proven.
Lena Hartog-van Bladeren She is the least likely candidate for the role of betrayer.
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Her husband Lammert worked in the stockroom on Prinsengracht until the raid inwhile she worked as a cleaner at the same address among others — something that she initially denied, by the way. A second contradiction is Lammert's statement that he continued to work at the stockroom for several days following the raid, while according to the helpers he immediately ran off when the arrest took place.
It can furthermore not be explained why Lena Hartog claimed that there were Jews hiding in the premises at number Where could she have got this information? From her husband or from Van Maaren? The latter declared later to have had just a suspicion. So was there information trickling through a grapevine?
Possibly, but hard to prove. Finally, Lena said that she feared for her husband, who worked in a place where Jews were hiding.
But then why did she not warn her husband on the day the raid took place to avoid his arrest, and notify the Security Service afterwards? The Germans refers to their source as a 'reliable' source.
Yet it remains unlikely, as she would have wanted as much as possible to avoid drawing attention to her family, given her husband's precarious position he hadn't responded to the Arbeitseinsatz, the summons to work.
To conclude The above demonstrates that there is no indubitable proof for who betrayed the Secret Annex. There is something about all the persons and circumstances that make them suspicious, but precisely because this is so, all argumentation falters here. It could be that a number of persons suspected the presence of the hiders, and that a number of persons involved with the Prinsengracht address knew each other, but this does not add up to any form of evidence.
Pure coincidence must moreover not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Perhaps neighbors sympathetic to or member of the NSB, who looked out on the rear facade of the premises, saw people moving past curtains that were not fully closed, and notified the authorities.
A few more 'loose ends' remain. For example, in late Victor Kugler was summoned to the local headquarters of the Nazi Party in his hometown of Hilversum, on the same night that the hiders on Prinsengracht were alarmed by an insistent ringing of the front doorbell.