Theory of Reasoned Action
Relationship of Behavioral Intention to Behavior · Evaluation · Glossary - strengthen the evaluation of an attitude that supports the persuasive goal - weaken the. As a professional, you are required to demonstrate an attitude and behaviours prioritise and plan your work to meet objectives, managing conflicting pressures and develop and maintain effective working relationships, being supportive to. Prediction of goal-directed behaviour: Attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22,
One such trait is intelligence - it seems that more intelligent people are less easily persuaded by one-sided messages. Another variable that has been studied in this category is self-esteem.
The mind frame and mood of the target also plays a role in this process. The major source characteristics are expertise, trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction or attractiveness. The credibility of a perceived message has been found to be a key variable here; if one reads a report about health and believes it came from a professional medical journal, one may be more easily persuaded than if one believes it is from a popular newspaper.
Some psychologists have debated whether this is a long-lasting effect and Hovland and Weiss found the effect of telling people that a message came from a credible source disappeared after several weeks the so-called " sleeper effect ". Whether there is a sleeper effect is controversial.Attitudes and Behavior
Perceived wisdom is that if people are informed of the source of a message before hearing it, there is less likelihood of a sleeper effect than if they are told a message and then told its source. The nature of the message plays a role in persuasion.
Sometimes presenting both sides of a story is useful to help change attitudes. When people are not motivated to process the message, simply the number of arguments presented in a persuasive message will influence attitude change, such that a greater number of arguments will produce greater attitude change.
A message can appeal to an individual's cognitive evaluation to help change an attitude. In the central route to persuasion the individual is presented with the data and motivated to evaluate the data and arrive at an attitude changing conclusion.
In the peripheral route to attitude change, the individual is encouraged to not look at the content but at the source. This is commonly seen in modern advertisements that feature celebrities. In some cases, physician, doctors or experts are used. In other cases film stars are used for their attractiveness. Emotion and attitude change[ edit ] Emotion is a common component in persuasionsocial influenceand attitude change.
Much of attitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components. Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism.
Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and conative components. By activating an affective or emotion node, attitude change may be possible, though affective and cognitive components tend to be intertwined. In primarily affective networks, it is more difficult to produce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude change. Affective forecastingotherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change. Research suggests that predicting emotions is an important component of decision making, in addition to the cognitive processes.
How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitive rationales. In terms of research methodology, the challenge for researchers is measuring emotion and subsequent impacts on attitude.
Since we cannot see into the brain, various models and measurement tools have been constructed to obtain emotion and attitude information. Measures may include the use of physiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures.
For instance, fear is associated with raised eyebrows, increased heart rate and increase body tension Dillard, Other methods include concept or network mapping, and using primes or word cues in the era. Components of emotion appeals[ edit ] Any discrete emotion can be used in a persuasive appeal; this may include jealousy, disgust, indignation, fear, blue, disturbed, haunted, and anger.
Fear is one of the most studied emotional appeals in communication and social influence research. Important consequences of fear appeals and other emotion appeals include the possibility of reactance which may lead to either message rejections or source rejection and the absence of attitude change. As the EPPM suggests, there is an optimal emotion level in motivating attitude change. If there is not enough motivation, an attitude will not change; if the emotional appeal is overdone, the motivation can be paralyzed thereby preventing attitude change.
Emotions perceived as negative or containing threat are often studied more than perceived positive emotions like humor. Though the inner-workings of humor are not agreed upon, humor appeals may work by creating incongruities in the mind. Recent research has looked at the impact of humor on the processing of political messages. While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential for targeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement. For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability to impact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about global warming.
Dillard suggests that message features such as source non-verbal communication, message content, and receiver differences can impact the emotion impact of fear appeals.
The characteristics of a message are important because one message can elicit different levels of emotion for different people.
Thus, in terms of emotion appeals messages, one size does not fit all. Attitude accessibility refers to the activation of an attitude from memory in other words, how readily available is an attitude about an object, issue, or situation. Issue involvement is the relevance and salience of an issue or situation to an individual.
Issue involvement has been correlated with both attitude access and attitude strength. Past studies conclude accessible attitudes are more resistant to change.
Attitude (psychology) - Wikipedia
Attitude-behavior relationship[ edit ] The effects of attitudes on behaviors is a growing research enterprise within psychology. Icek Ajzen has led research and helped develop two prominent theoretical approaches within this field: Theory of reasoned action[ edit ] The theory of reasoned action TRA is a model for the prediction of behavioral intention, spanning predictions of attitude and predictions of behavior.
Our attitudes are inherited and also learned through direct and indirect experiences with the attitude objects. Some attitudes are more likely to be based on beliefs, some are more likely to be based on feelings, and some are more likely to be based on behaviors. Strong attitudes are important in the sense that we hold them with confidence, we do not change them very much, and we use them frequently to guide our actions. Although there is a general consistency between attitudes and behavior, the relationship is stronger in some situations than in others, for some measurements than for others, and for some people than for others.
Exercises and Critical Thinking Describe an example of a behavior that you engaged in that might be explained by the theory of planned behavior.
Include each of the components of the theory in your analysis. Consider a time when you acted on your own attitudes and a time when you did not act on your own attitudes. What factors do you think determined the difference? Affective and semantic components in political person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, — The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 2— The handbook of attitudes pp. The automatic evaluation effect: Unconditional automatic attitude activation with a pronunciation task.
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Attitudes as object-evaluation associations: Determinants, consequences, and correlates of attitude accessibility.
When Do Our Attitudes Guide Our Behavior?
Antecedents and consequences pp. Lawrence Erlbaum; Fazio, R. Toward a process model of the attitude-behavior relation: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44 4— How automatic evaluations influence the interpretation of subsequent, unrelated stimuli.
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Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 8— A meta-analysis, Health Psychology Review, 5 2 Assessing autonomic nervous system reactivity. The heritability of attitudes: