The relationship between Brahman and Atman
This article explains the Hindu concepts of Atman, Dharma, Varna, Karma, What is correct for a woman might not be for a man or what is correct for an Brahmans or Brahmins - the intellectuals and the priestly class who. Ātman is a Sanskrit word that means inner self .. In its soteriological themes, Buddhism has defined nirvana as that to Brahman, the basis of everything, this . Let's take a closer look at this relationship. RESPONSE: 1. What is the relationship between Brahman and Atman? A basic tenet of Hinduism is.
Good or virtuous actions, actions in harmony with dharma, will have good reactions or responses and bad actions, actions against dharma, will have the opposite effect.
In Hinduism karma operates not only in this lifetime but across lifetimes: Hindus believe that human beings can create good or bad consequences for their actions and might reap the rewards of action in this life, in a future human rebirth or reap the rewards of action in a heavenly or hell realm in which the self is reborn for a period of time.Are we Divine? Atman is Brahman - Bridging Beliefs
This process of reincarnation is called samsara, a continuous cycle in which the soul is reborn over and over again according to the law of action and reaction. At death many Hindus believe the soul is carried by a subtle body into a new physical body which can be a human or non-human form an animal or divine being. The goal of liberation moksha is to make us free from this cycle of action and reaction, and from rebirth. Purushartha Purushartha Hinduism developed a doctrine that life has different goals according to a person's stage of life and position.
These goals became codified in the 'goals of a person' or 'human goals', the purusharthas, especially in sacred texts about dharma called 'dharma shastras' of which the 'Laws of Manu' is the most famous. In these texts three goals of life are expressed, namely virtuous living or dharma, profit or worldly success, and pleasure, especially sexual pleasure as a married householder and more broadly aesthetic pleasure. A fourth goal of liberation moksha was added at a later date. The purusharthas express an understanding of human nature, that people have different desires and purposes which are all legitimate in their context.
Over the centuries there has been discussion about which goal was most important. Towards the end of the Mahabharata Shantiparvan Vidura claims that dharma is most important because through it the sages enter the absolute reality, on dharma the universe rests, and through dharma wealth is acquired.
One of the brothers, Arjuna, disagrees, claiming that dharma and pleasure rest on profit. Another brother, Bhima, argues for pleasure or desire being the most important goal, as only through desire have the sages attained liberation.
Ātman (Hinduism) - Wikipedia
This discussion recognises the complexity and varied nature of human purposes and meanings in life. Brahman and God Brahman Brahman is a Sanskrit word which refers to a transcendent power beyond the universe. As such, it is sometimes translated as 'God' although the two concepts are not identical. Brahman is the power which upholds and supports everything. According to some Hindus this power is identified with the self atman while others regard it as distinct from the self.
Most Hindus agree that Brahman pervades everything although they do not worship Brahman. Some Hindus regard a particular deity or deities as manifestations of Brahman. God Most Hindus believe in God but what this means varies in different traditions.
The Sanskrit words Bhagavan and Ishvara mean 'Lord' or 'God' and indicate an absolute reality who creates, sustains and destroys the universe over and over again. It is too simplistic to define Hinduism as belief in many gods or 'polytheism'. Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God, whose qualities and forms are represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him. God, being unlimited, can have unlimited forms and expressions.
God can be approached in a number of ways and a devoted person can relate to God as a majestic king, as a parent figure, as a friend, as a child, as a beautiful woman, or even as a ferocious Goddess. Each person can relate to God in a particular form, the ishta devata or desired form of God. Thus, one person might be drawn towards Shiva, another towards Krishna, and another towards Kali. Many Hindus believe that all the different deities are aspects of a single, transcendent power.
In the history of Hinduism, God is conceptualised in different ways, as an all knowing and all pervading spirit, as the creator and force within all beings, their 'inner controller' antaryamin and as wholly transcendent. There are two main ideas about Bhagavan or Ishvara: Bhagavan is an impersonal energy.
Brahman and Atman
Ultimately God is beyond language and anything that can be said about God cannot capture the reality. Followers of the Advaita Vedanta tradition based on the teachings of Adi Shankara maintain that the soul and God are ultimately identical and liberation is achieved once this has been realised. This teaching is called non-dualism or advaita because it claims there is no distinction between the soul and the ultimate reality. Bhagavan is a person.
God can be understood as a supreme person with qualities of love and compassion towards creatures. On this theistic view the soul remains distinct from the Lord even in liberation. The supreme Lord expresses himself through the many gods and goddesses. The theologian Ramanuja also in the wider Vedanta tradition as Shankara makes a distinction between the essence of God and his energies. We can know the energies of God but not his essence. Devotion bhakti is the best way to understand God in this teaching.
For convenience Hindus are often classified into the three most popular Hindu denominations, called paramparas in Sanskrit. These paramparas are defined by their attraction to a particular form of God called ishta or devata: Vaishnavas focus on Vishnu and his incarnations avatara, avatars. The Vaishanavas believe that God incarnates into the world in different forms such as Krishna and Rama in order to restore dharma.
This is considered to be the most popular Hindu denomination. Shaivas focus on Shivaparticularly in his form of the linga although other forms such as the dancing Shiva are also worshipped.
In fact, the Vedas, for which the Vedic Period is named really form the root of Hinduism as it is practiced today. It is believed that the Vedas come from an Indo-Aryan people that many historians believe came from Central Asia and were related to many of the people who colonized Europe. Now, the other thing that is fascinating about Hinduism, and I really just referred to some of it, it is a combination of many cultures that really merged over thousands of years.
And, they merged around the Indian subcontinent. As you will see there are many traditions, many cultures, many different ways that one can, and many different ways that people do practice Hinduism. But, there are also core beliefs that we wanna get to the heart of in this video.
And, we'll discuss more in future videos. Now, what's also interesting is where the name Hinduism or Hindu comes from, a Hindu being someone who practices Hinduism.
The name for what we now call the Indus River in Sanskrit was Sindhu, and Sindh is still a region in the Indian subcontinent. The version that the Persians said was Hindus and this got converted to Indus in Latin. So really, Hinduism is the term for the cultural and religious practices of people beyond the Indus River.
The India really comes from this same root. Indus is where India comes from, but Indus comes from Hindus, which comes from Sindhu and these are all related to the word Hindu.
And, you can see that very clearly in the Persian version. Now, as I mentioned, there's many different practices in Hinduism, many different traditions, many different rituals in Hinduism, but I'm going to try to focus in on what could be considered the spiritual core. And, a lot of this comes out of the Vedas. They're a collection of hymns, rituals, but also philosophy.
And, the subset of the Vedas that are very concerned with the spiritual and the philosophical are known as the Upanishads, which means sitting down or coming near to.
Some people say coming near to God, some people say coming near to the actual reality, or coming near to a teacher as in sitting down to get a lesson or to have a dialog. Now, the central idea in Hinduism is the idea of Brahman. And Brahman should not be confused with the god Brahma. Brahma is sometimes, you could view, as a aspect of a Brahman, but Brahman is viewed as the true reality of things. It is shapeless, genderless, bodiless, it cannot be described. It can only be experienced.
Now, according to Hindu belief we are all part of Brahman.
And, what we perceive as our individuality is really, you can consider to be a quasi-illusion. So, this might be one individual right over here and then we might have another individual right over here.
Atman & Brahman
And, this separateness, the illusion of the reality that we see around us this is referred to as Maya. And, Maya is not just the illusion or the quasi-illusion created by our senses it is even notions like our ego, our identity. And, within that context that inner self, the thing that is even within our, that is even deeper than our sense of identity. This is referred to as Atman. And, as you can see they way it's been diagrammed here, the way we've drawn it out Atman is essentially the same thing as Brahman.