Potential energy - Wikipedia
In physics, potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors. Common types of potential energy include the gravitational potential energy . In this section the relationship between work and potential energy is presented in. This means that the cat's Elastic potential energy will have some correlation to the distance travelled into the trampoline. It's the same principle. A: Because the diver is high above the water, she has the potential to fall toward Earth because of gravity. This gives her potential energy.
This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy. Similarly, a drawn bow is able to store energy as the result of its position. When assuming its usual position i. Yet when its position is altered from its usual equilibrium position, the bow is able to store energy by virtue of its position. Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object. Gravitational Potential Energy The two examples above illustrate the two forms of potential energy to be discussed in this course - gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy.
Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored in an object as the result of its vertical position or height. The energy is stored as the result of the gravitational attraction of the Earth for the object.
Difference Between Gravitational Potential Energy and Elastic Potential Energy
The gravitational potential energy of the massive ball of a demolition machine is dependent on two variables - the mass of the ball and the height to which it is raised. There is a direct relation between gravitational potential energy and the mass of an object.
More massive objects have greater gravitational potential energy. There is also a direct relation between gravitational potential energy and the height of an object.
The higher that an object is elevated, the greater the gravitational potential energy. These relationships are expressed by the following equation: To determine the gravitational potential energy of an object, a zero height position must first be arbitrarily assigned.
Typically, the ground is considered to be a position of zero height. But this is merely an arbitrarily assigned position that most people agree upon. Since many of our labs are done on tabletops, it is often customary to assign the tabletop to be the zero height position. Again this is merely arbitrary. If the tabletop is the zero position, then the potential energy of an object is based upon its height relative to the tabletop. If the object is lifted at a constant speed so that all the work done from lifting the object is given to the object as gravitational potential energy, we can calculate the gain in gravitational potential energy of the body due to its rise.
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Since the object is lifted at a constant speed, the forces are balanced and lifting force would be. Since the object is raised through a heightthe work done is given by. This means that the gain in gravitational potential energy is given by: What is Elastic Potential Energy An object gains elastic potential energy if it is physically deformed. When an object is deformed, the molecules that form the material are forced to move away from their equilibrium positions.
If the material is elastic, then the molecules try to get back to their equilibrium positions. This gives the material an ability to do work. Therefore, when an elastic material is deformed, we say that the material has elastic potential energy.
Rubber bands, when stretched, gain potential energy Springs: The more deformed a spring is, the more is the force needed to deform it further.
The force increases with extension: