Mariam uz zamani and Salim | History and Chronicles
The marriage was arranged by Akbar's father and Ruqaiya's uncle, Emperor Humayun, and took place Therein, she is referred to as Mariam uz Zamani. Now all of us are aware that Salim and his mother Mariam-uz-zamani had not so close a relation. If they were really close then when Salim. Mariam-uz-Zamani c. – 19 May ) was a wife of Emperor Akbar. Her actual name is In , she was offered in marriage to the Emperor Akbar by her father, Raja Bihari Mal. . The Mosque of Mariam Zamani Begum Sahiba was built by her son Nuruddin Salim Jahangir in her honour and is situated in the Walled.
In front of them was yet another narrow dale, leading right by difficult ways up to Malandrai Pass. Everything fell into confusion, the van and main body pushed on in disorder; only in rearguard, under Zain Khan, was there any semblance of ordered array.
The tribesmen lined both crests parallel with the track to the summit, and poured in volleys of arrows and stones on the harassed crowd. As night came on, the ranks became panic-stricken, and, the way reconnoitered, were entangled in the mazes of the hills.
In their anxiety to get forward many fell into pits or over precipices, and the route was blocked, elephants, horses and men mixed together in inextricable confusion and disarray. The poet, Abul Fateh, cowering beneath a bush, was picked up by Zain Khan, who pushed slowly on with the only force that held together.
After heavy fighting he and Abul Fateh reached a point near the crest of the Malandrai and bivouacked for the night. The tribesmen, glutted with slaughter and spoil, drew off, and, three days, later Zain Khan with a sorry remnant reached Attock Fort to report what had befallen. For two days Akbar would not admit Zain Khan and Abul Fateh to his presence; he charged them with failure to bring in the body of Birbul to be burnt. InAkbar negotiated a pact with Abdullah Khan in which the Mughals agreed to remain neutral during the Uzbek invasion of Safavid held Khorasan.
Thus freed, Akbar began a series of campaigns to pacify the Yusufzais and other rebels. Raja Birbala renowned minister in Akbar's court, was also given military command. The expedition turned out to be a disaster, and on its retreat from the mountains, Birbal and his entourage were ambushed and killed by the Afghans at the Malandarai Pass in February Over the next six years, the Mughals contained the Yusufzai in the mountain valleys, and forced the submission of many chiefs in Swat and Bajaur.
Akbar's response demonstrated his ability to clamp firm military control over the Afghan tribes. There was only a transient occupation of the two provinces by the Mughals under his grandson, Shah Jahanin the midth century. The last of the rebellious Afghan tribes were subdued by The Afridi and Orakzai tribes, which had risen up under the Roshaniyyas, had been subjugated.
Ali Shah surrendered immediately to the Mughals, but another of his sons, Yaqub, crowned himself as king, and led a stubborn resistance to Mughal armies. Finally, in June,Akbar himself travelled from Lahore to Srinagar to receive the surrender of Yaqub and his rebel forces. Sincethe northern fortress of Bhakkar had remained under imperial control.
Now, inthe Mughal governor of Multan tried and failed to secure the capitulation of Mirza Jani Beg, the independent ruler of Thatta in southern Sindh.
Jani Beg mustered a large army to meet the Mughals.
Was it really romance Jodha-Akbar? - Times of India
After suffering further defeats, Jani Beg surrendered to the Mughals inand inpaid homage to Akbar in Lahore. In preparations to take Kandahar from the Safavids, Akbar ordered the Mughal forces to conquer the rest of the Afghan held parts of Baluchistan in As a result, the modern-day Pakistani and Afghan parts of Baluchistan, including the area's of the strategic region of Makran that lay within it, became a part of the Mughal Empire. However, the Safavids considered it as an appanage of the Persian ruled territory of Khorasan and declared its association with the Mughal emperors to be a usurpation.
Inwhile Akbar was consolidating his rule over northern India, the Safavid emperor, Tahmasp Ihad seized Kandahar and expelled its Mughal governor.
For the next thirty years, it remained under Persian rule. Circumstances favoured the Mughals. Mozaffar Hosayn, who was in any case in an adversary relationship with his overlord, Shah Abbaswas granted a rank of men, and his daughter Kandahari Begum was married to Akbar's grandson, the Mughal prince, Khurram. However, the power equation between the two had now changed in favour of the Mughals.
A subsequent revolt forced Akbar to take the fort in Aug. Akbar occupied Burhanpur and besieged Asirgarh Fort inand took it on 17 Jan. He touched the western seain Sind and at Surat and was well astride central India. The head of the military was called the mir bakshi, appointed from among the leading nobles of the court. The mir bakshi was in charge of intelligence gathering, and also made recommendations to the emperor for military appointments and promotions. The mir saman was in charge of the imperial household, including the harems, and supervised the functioning of the court and royal bodyguard.
The judiciary was a separate organisation headed by a chief qaziwho was also responsible for religious beliefs and practices Taxation Akbar set about reforming the administration of his empire's land revenue by adopting a system that had been used by Sher Shah Suri. A cultivated area where crops grew well was measured and taxed through fixed rates based on the area's crop and productivity.
However, this placed hardship on the peasantry because tax rates were fixed on the basis of prices prevailing in the imperial court, which were often higher than those in the countryside. This system was later refined, taking into account local prices, and grouping areas with similar productivity into assessment circles. Remission was given to peasants when the harvest failed during times of flood or drought.
Mariam-uz-Zamani Biography - Facts, Childhood, Life History & Achievements of Akbar's Wife
Land which was fallow or uncultivated was charged at concessional rates. The village continued to remain the primary unit of revenue assessment. In turn, the zamindars were given a hereditary right to collect a share of the produce. Peasants had a hereditary right to cultivate the land as long as they paid the land revenue. Revenue officials were guaranteed only three-quarters of their salary, with the remaining quarter dependent on their full realisation of the revenue assessed.
Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Akbar, Akbar organised his army as well as the nobility by means of a system called the mansabdari. Under this system, each officer in the army was assigned a rank a mansabdarand assigned a number of cavalry that he had to supply to the imperial army.
The top three commanding ranks, ranging from to troops, were normally reserved for princes. Other ranks between 10 and were assigned to other members of the nobility.
The empire's permanent standing army was quite small and the imperial forces mostly consisted of contingents maintained by the mansabdars.
The number of horses was greater because they had to be rested and rapidly replaced in times of war. Akbar employed strict measures to ensure that the quality of the armed forces was maintained at a high level; horses were regularly inspected and only Arabian horses were normally employed. Believing the area to be a lucky one for himself, he had a mosque constructed there for the use of the priest. However, the city was soon abandoned and the capital was moved to Lahore in The reason may have been that the water supply in Fatehpur Sikri was insufficient or of poor quality.
Or, as some historians believe, Akbar had to attend to the northwest areas of his empire and therefore moved his capital northwest. Other sources indicate Akbar simply lost interest in the city  or realised it was not militarily defensible. InAkbar shifted his capital back to Agra from where he reigned until his death. Economy Trade The reign of Akbar was characterised by commercial expansion.
This is a title and not a name. Marriage[ edit ] The background of this marriage was, that when Akbar was proceeding to Ajmer for offering prayers to the tomb of Moinuddin Chishti Bihari Mal had approached Akbar and conveyed to him that he was being harassed by his brother-in-law, Sharif-ud-din Mirza the Mughal hakim of Mewaton account of Sharif-ud-din's conflict with Bihari Mal's elder brother, Suja. Bihari Mal, who had only a small following agreed to pay peshkash, and given as hostage his son and two of his nephews, but Sharif-ud-din was not satisfied and wanted to destroy him.
Akbar insisted that Bihari Mal should submit to him personally. It was also suggested that his daughter should be married to him, as a sign of complete submission. Once, this had been done, Akbar asked his brother-in-law, Sharif-ud-din, not to interfere with the raja.
This was a sign that the marriage was not of equals and indicated Bihari Mal's family's inferior social status. Hindus as well as Muslims.
The rajas had much to gain from the link to imperial family. Akbar made such marriages respectable for Rajputs. An expectant Heer was sent to Sheikh's humble dwelling at Sikri during the period of her pregnancy. Rana of Mewar and Prince Khurram had a standoff that resulted in a treaty acceptable to both parties. Khurram was kept busy with several campaigns in Bengal and Kashmir. Taking advantage of this internal conflict, the Persians seized the city of Kandahar and as a result of this loss, the Mughals lost control over the trade routes to Afghanistan, Persian and Central Asia and also exposed India to invasions from the north-west.
Jahangir's rule was characterized by the same religious tolerance as his father Akbar, with the exception of his hostility with the Sikhs, which was forged so early on in his rule. InJahangir ordered the Sikh Guru Arjan Dev the fifth Sikh guru to be tortured and sentenced to death after he refused to remove all Islamic and Hindu references from the Holy book. After enduring five days of unrelenting torture Guru Arjan was taken for a bath in the Ravi river.
As thousands watched he entered the river never to be seen again. An aesthete, Jahangir decided to start his reign with a grand display of "Justice", as he saw it. To this end, he enacted Twelve Decrees that are remarkable for their liberalism and foresight. During his reign, there was a significant increase in the size of the Mughal Empire, half a dozen rebellions were crushed, prisoners of war were released, and the work of his father, Akbar, continued to flourish.
Much like his father, Jahangir was dedicated to the expansion of Mughal held territory through conquest. During this regime he would target the peoples of Assam near the eastern frontier and bring a series of territories controlled by independent rajas in the Himalayan foothills from Kashmir to Bengal. Jahangir would challenge the hegemonic claim over Afghanistan by the Safavid rulers with an eye on KabulPeshawar and Kandahar which were important centers of the central Asian trade system that northern India operated within.
After his victory Khurram would turn against his father and make a bid for power. As with the insurrection of his eldest son KhusrawJahangir was able to defeat the challenge from within his family and retain power. Jahangir promised to protect Islam and granted general amnesty to his opponents. He was also notable for his patronage of the arts, especially of painting. During his reign the distinctive style of Mughal painting expanded and blossomed.
Jahangir supported a flourishing culture of court painters. Jahangir is most famous for his golden "chain of justice. Standing outside the castle of Agra with sixty bells, anyone was capable of pulling the chain and having a personal hearing from Jahangir himself. Furthermore, Jahangir preserved the Mughal tradition of having a highly centralized form of government. Jahangir made the precepts of Sunni Islam the cornerstone of his state policies.
A faithful Muslim, as evidenced by his memoirs, he expressed his gratitude to Allah for his many victories. Jahangir, as a devout Muslim, did not let his personal beliefs dictate his state policies.
Sovereignty, according to Jahangir, was a "gift of God" not necessarily given to enforce God's law but rather to "ensure the contentment of the world.
In matters like marriage and inheritance, both communities had their own laws that Jahangir respected. Thus Jahangir was able to deliver justice to people in accordance of their beliefs, and also keep his hold on empire by unified criminal law. In the Mughal state, therefore, defiance of imperial authority, whether coming from a prince or anyone else aspiring to political power, or a Muslim or a Hindu, was crushed in the name of law and order.
Jahangir's relationship with other rulers of the time is one that was well documented by Sir Thomas Roe, especially his relationship with the Persian King, Shah Abbas. Though conquest was one of Jahangir's many goals, he was a naturalist and lover of the arts and did not have quite the same warrior ambition of the Persian king. This led to a mutual enmity that, while diplomatically hidden, was very clear to observers within Jahangir's court.
Furthermore, Abbas had, for many years, been trying to recover the city of Kandahar, which Jahangir was not keen to part with, especially to this king whom he did not particularly care for, despite seeing him as an equal. In this state, Jahangir was also open to the influence of his wives, a weakness exploited by many. Because of this constant inebriated state, Nur Jahan, the favourite wife of Jahangir, became the actual power behind the throne.
In the yearJahangir began to contemplate an alliance between the OttomansMughals and Uzbeks against the Safavidswho had defeated the Mughals at Kandahar. He even wrote a letter to the Ottoman Sultan Murad IVJahangir's ambition however did not materialize due to his death in Marriage Salim was made a Mansabdar of ten thousand Das-Hazarithe highest military rank of the empire, after the emperor.
He independently commanded a regiment in the Kabul campaign ofwhen he was barely twelve. The marriage with Manbhawati Bai took place on 13 February Manbhawati gave birth to Khusrau Mirza. Thereafter, Salim married, in quick succession, a number of accomplished girls from the aristocratic Mughal and Rajput families.
The total number of wives in his harem was more than eight hundred. Jahangir married the extremely beautiful and intelligent Mehr-un-Nisaa better known by her subsequent title of Nur Jahanon 25 May She was the widow of Sher Afgan.
Mehr-un-Nisaa became his indisputable chief consort and favourite wife immediately after their marriage. She was witty, intelligent and beautiful, which was what attracted Jahangir to her. Her abilities are said to range from fashion designing to hunting.
There is also a myth that she had once killed four tigers with six bullets. He had earned the title "Sher Afgan" Tiger tosser from Emperor Akbar after throwing off a tiger that had leaped to attack Akbar on the top of an elephant in a royal hunt at Bengal, and then stabbing the fallen tiger to death.
Akbar was greatly affected by the bravery of the young Turkish bodyguard accompanying him and awarded him the captaincy of the Imperial Guard at BurdwanBengal. Sher Afgan had killed in rebellion after having learned of Jahangir's orders to have him slain to possess his beautiful wife Mehr Un Nisaa as Jahangir yearned for her much earlier than her wedding to Sher Afganthe governor of Bengal Qutubuddin Koka who was instructed secretly by Jahangir in his quest and who also was the emperor's foster brother and Sheikh Salim Chishti 's grandson and consequently had been slain by the guards of the Governor.