The Pilgrims and the Native Americans | Sutori
For many Native Americans, Thanksgiving is not synonymous with Test your knowledge of Thanksgiving history by considering these. Pilgrim and Wampanoag Test study guide by dadams1 includes 20 The Pilgrims sailed to America on this ship Native Americans who helped the Pilgrims. Native American Perspective: Fast Turtle, Wampanoag Tribe Member . It was obvious from the beginning of the Pilgrim–Wampanoag relationship .. when the boy was 11 or 12, he was tested to determine if his hunting skills were developed .
Colonists from England began arriving in what is now Virginia since before One such Native American was Samoset, a Wampanoag who established relationships early on with the Pilgrims. Samoset had learned enough English to Native Americans are very much a part of the history of the Pilgrims who settled this country. Here, Samoset meets with the Pilgrim leaders. He knew another Native American named Squanto who became a liaison with the new settlers. The Native Americans helped the Pilgrims survive the first winter and taught them how to live in this new land.
A celebration of Thanksgiving was held in in the fall of with a number of Wampanoag people joining the Pilgrims. The genealogy researcher will find that historical records detail a three day feast.
In early November ofa second ship, the Fortune, landed with about 35 new settlers and few provisions. This genealogy researcher located two written accounts by Edward Winslow and William Bradford that survive and have no specific mention of the date of the feast or of new arrivals.
By the time the Mayflower dropped anchor, whole villages had been wiped out, including the one in Plymouth. The English desperately needed help after the starvation of the winter, but the Wampanoags needed help, too. The plague left the rival Pequot and Narragansett tribes to the west untouched and more powerful than ever, with more than 3, warriors against a few hundred Wampanoags.
So two threatened groups made common cause — though not immediately. Then the sachems Squanto and Samoset came calling in Marchas emissaries from Massasoit, the most powerful local chief.Native Americans on: THANKSGIVING
Hockomock, another Wampanoag, was fluent in English and lived at Plimoth. That mutual respect — and the fur trade that came with it — endured beyond the Pequot War of It was still developing when Massasoit and a contingent of villagers joined the English for the first Thanksgiving — in Septembernot November.
Pickering and Coombs said the dinner would have been diplomatic, not social. In turn, Pilgrim leader Edward Winslow visited Massasoit — and learned more about the Wampanoag traditions and religious beliefs. Winslow published a pamphlet of his observations in England in I do not know the migration path that the tribes in the Northeast used.
However, there is evidence that we have been here for more than 10, years. What does the word Wampanoag mean in English? Wampanoag means "land where the sun comes up first. How many people were in your tribe? There were more than 5, Wampanoag people. Many of our people died from disease brought over by the white man. Later the Wampanoags developed immunity to most of those diseases. What is it like belonging to a tribal group? I am very proud to be a Wampanoag.
We have the ocean, bays, rivers, and lakes, which are filled with fish. My family has a good home and we are happy with our Wampanoag way of life. What are some the names of your neighboring tribes? To the west of us are the Narragansett tribe and the Pequot tribe.
To the north are the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, and the Malisite tribes. To the northwest are the Nipmuck and the Mohawk tribes. We are all part of the Algonquin-language group, but speak different dialects of that language.
How did the Wampanoags travel around? The Wampanoag people traveled mostly by foot. They moved from their winter homes, which were well inland, to a place where they planted their crops in the early spring. After a month or so at the fields, they packed up and moved closer to the ocean, where they caught herring, clams, oysters, and lobster.
Sometimes they had clambakes for the entire tribe during the warm days of summer. They played games, swam in the ocean, and rejuvenated themselves after the long hard winter. In the fall at harvest time, they retraced their steps and harvested their crops and prepared for the winter.
Finally, they moved back to their winter place to complete the cycle. Did the Wampanoags have horses in their villages? The Wampanoags did not have horses before the Europeans came to these shores.
What is your chief's name? My chief's name is Osamequin. Osamequin means "Yellow Feather.
Native American Perspective: Fast Turtle, Wampanoag Tribe Member
Massasoit is the Wampanoag word for sachem, or chief. He is the Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag people. Who was the greatest chief of all times? The greatest Wampanoag chief was Osamequin. What was the most popular Indian name? A popular Indian name was Tisquantum, from which the name Squanto derived.
How many Indian tribes are there in all? There are more than federally recognized Indian tribes in the United States, and many more that do not have treaties with the United States. In New England, where the Wampanoag people live, there are 15 Indian tribes.
Most of them have land near the ocean. How did the Wampanoag people communicate without having television, radio, or computers? The Wampanoag people had a communication system that is still used today.
They relied on the spoken word and symbols that told a story and sometimes recorded history. Sometimes they used drums to send messages to tribe members who were some distance away. Smoke signals were also used. The young men were trained in running long distances. The training gave them endurance and strength to carry messages from one place to another.
It is hard to imagine a world without TV, radio, and computers, but the Wampanoag children did just fine without them. They hunted and fished, built wigwams and canoes. They did things that were necessary for survival. What group of people were the first to make contact with the Wampanoags? The first foreign people to come visit my people were the Viking explorers. That is when we first saw metal weapons and tools. The size of their boats just blew our minds.
It was a very memorable experience. Daily Needs of the Wampanoag What are the natural resources that you used to help meet your basic needs? The Wampanoag people were close to the earth and were able to get food and clothing from animals that they hunted.
Wampanoags grew vegetables, such as corn, beans, and squash. These vegetables were called the "Three Sisters. Their shelter was made of cedar saplings and bark. This housing was called a wetu. It was quite comfortable, even in the winter. The cooking fire was inside, and the smoke was able to get out through a hole in the roof. How did the Wampanoags keep themselves clean? Where did you bathe? They used leaves or grass or other organic material to clean themselves after going to the bathroom.
They took showers when it rained, and bathed in ponds and pools almost every season, except during the extreme cold winter months. Wampanoag people were very clean. They swam in the warm weather and went to the sweat lodge in the cold weather. How did you brush your teeth? We brushed our teeth with mint leaves and short pine bristles. The mint leaves a refreshing taste in the mouth.
How did you get your water? Wampanoags had a plentiful source of water. Some came from underground springs, but our main source of water was the rivers and lakes in the Massipee area. Can you tell us about your sleeping habits? I am in the habit of going to bed when the sun goes down.
I awake at sunrise and love to see the sun rise over the ocean. Morning is special to me. How were sick people cared for? What happened to people who became really ill? Every tribe had a medicine man or medicine woman who was familiar with remedies for almost every kind of illness. The Wampanoags also had a sweat lodge which was used when illness required it.
Wampanoag Children Did Wampanoag children receive their education in a formal school-type atmosphere? Was education different for boys than girls? We did not have school in the same way you have school. We had no TV, computers, visual aids, radios, or school buses. Before the English came to these shores, Wampanoag children learned how to do things by watching their parents or tribal elders.
The village was the classroom, and the extended family was the teacher. The young girls learned from following their mothers, aunts, and elders of the community. They watched their mothers gather wood, light fires, and cook the food for the family. They also learned how to stretch and tan leather for clothing and also how to sew. They learned how to gather food and berries, plant crops, tan leather from animal skins, make a wigwam, and cook.
The learning sometimes took long hours and over many years before the girls grew into young women and had their own families. Young boys learned at the side of their fathers, uncles, and tribal elders.
The adults taught us about the seasons, what animals were good, where the fish were located and how to catch them. We became proficient with the bow and arrow and spear and learned to run long distances. For boys, our jobs were to be good hunters, fisherman, and protectors of the Wampanoag territory.
So the answer to your question is that the Wampanoag lived in a different environment that called for a drastically different way of learning what was necessary to survive.
As kids, we played games that developed our skills and body coordination. We also learned endurance so that we could travel long distances in preparation for future endeavors.
Do Wampanoag girls and boys help with the corn planting? Young girls and boys are taught how to gather rocks and sit in the corn watch to drive away birds and animals that get into the garden to steal the seeds. A corn watch is a tower erected near the cornfields.
What games did Wampanoag girls and boys play? Early on, both boys and girls played many games that developed their hand and eye coordination, so they could develop other skills as they grew older. Some of the games were the ring and pin game, lacrosse, football, swimming games, and long-distance running races.
All of these games were used to develop endurance, accuracy, and precision. Did Wampanoag children have pets back in the s? Wampanoag children had pets such as dogs, which were used for hunting and protection of the village, rabbits, skunk, and some other wild animals that they could train. The children had to keep a sharp eye on their pets lest they wind up in someone's pot for supper.
If a skunk was going to become a pet, it had to be de-scented first. After that, the skunk was a delightful friend.
They did not have pigs or domesticated cats. Baby bears also made good pets while they were small, but when they got older there were two problems. One, big bears ate a lot of food. Two, as they got larger they became dangerous. They were returned to the wild. When you were a boy, what was the hardest thing in life? As a Wampanoag boy, the hardest thing in life was keeping warm in the winter. To prepare for the harsh months, my family worked hard all year to make sure there was enough clothing and blankets to keep us warm when the snow fell.
We had to help the tribal adults gather food that could be stored and saved for those hard months. We learned the habits of the winter animals so that we could track them in the snow so we could have meat and fur in the winter. It was my job to gather and store wood for the fire we used for heating and cooking. We had a busy life just to survive. We also had games to keep us occupied so that we would not be bored stiff. Our elders were great storytellers who gave us the history of our tribe and great stories about our hunters and warriors.
Why did year-old boys have to go out by themselves and live in the woods? If their trainer felt that a Wampanoag boy was ready, when the boy was 11 or 12, he was tested to determine if his hunting skills were developed. This was his school, and hunting was a very important lesson to learn.
Food and Hunting How did the Wampanoags get their food? Did the Wampanoags ever face starvation? Traditionally, the Wampanoag women planted food crops such as beans, corn, and squash. These were staple foods that could remain edible for many months. The Wampanoags also grew potatoes, which were another hearty food that would keep well in the winter months.
In addition we were great hunters and fishermen who fed our families deer, rabbit, woodchuck, and duck, as well as all sorts of fish. The saltwater bays near the ocean provided food such as quahogs, clams, oysters, and mussels. We always knew what was in season so that we never went hungry or faced starvation.
Wampanoags were also great cooks. Even the men knew how to make a clambake big enough to feed the whole tribe. For desserts, there were wild strawberries, plums, cranberries, and other wild fruit. Life was good before the Europeans came, and we enjoyed all the bounties provided to us by the Great Spirit. Occasionally, we would have a feast to thank the Great Spirit for the generous bounties he bestowed upon us. After the Europeans settled on our land, many changes took place which affected all the Wampanoags.
What kinds of food did the Wampanoag like to eat? The Wampanoags ate all kinds of game animals, including deer, bear, rabbit, woodchuck, skunk, turtle, and squirrel. In addition, the Wampanoag ate a wide variety of fish. Mashpee Lake contained bass, pickerel, sunfish, and perch. In the spring, herring would darken the Mashpee River; there were so many of them, one could catch the herring with one's hands.
Also, in Popponessett Bay, there was an abundance of shellfish, including quahogs, oysters, clams, and mussels.
Genealogist Looks At Thanksgiving, Pilgrims, Native Americans, Mayflower
The bay was also filled with eels, which are delicious when cooked right, and lobster, crabs, flatfish, scup, and occasionally sea bass. Wampanoags also liked pheasant, wild duck, and the geese from up north. What are the "Three Sisters? The corn grew, and the beans used the corn stalk to climb, and the squash just spread out to the side. What kind of corn do you eat?
I eat crystal white corn, which was a special strain of corn grown in Mashpee. Describe a typical hunt. I was sent out on a hunting expedition to gather meat for our tribe. I left just before the full moon in order to have light at night for traveling and hunting. I was after deer and moose, although I would have liked to encounter a black bear. I also wanted to be able to find any of these animals close to home so that I would not have to carry the animal so far.
A moose or bear are very heavy and would require much strength to carry them back home. Before the hunt, my friends and I offered a prayer for the animals that we were going to kill.
Pilgrims and Indians: A practical relationship
We know that even the animals have spirits and we want them to know that we have respect for the life they are about to give up for our tribe. Our hunting party got a deer and a bear on this trip, and we made sure that we used all parts of the animals. We stripped the fur for clothing and for blankets.
The meat was carefully packed to take back to our village. The bear grease was saved for cooking and medicinal purposes. On the third day, our hunt was over, and we returned to camp with enough food to feed the entire village. The Medicine Man said a prayer to thank the Great Spirit for a successful hunt.
Are you a hunter? I am a great hunter and have learned to hunt for food since I was a little boy. My father and my uncles taught me to hunt and fish for food for the tribe.
Game is plentiful in Mashpee, and we learned the habits of the animals as part of our training. We also learned not to kill any animal unless it was going to be eaten for food. Before we kill an animal, we offer a prayer to the Great Spirit and pay our respects to the animal. If the Great Spirit guides our arrow straight, then we make sure to use all parts of the animal.