Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness
Examined several of the links between the parent–child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness. School readiness is. findings about the importance of parent-child relationships in early learning. relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness. School. Program Environment. Family Partnerships. Teaching and. Learning. Community Positive parent-child relationships provide the foundation value cultural differences and home languages, Development and School Readiness.
How can transition experiences promote opportunities, expectations, aspirations and entitlements? Utilizing the Position Statement, educators are encouraged to reflect on transition practices from a range of perspectives.
Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness.
How do transition strategies and experiences provide opportunities for: Children to continue shaping their identities and to extend their existing knowledge, skills and understandings through interactions with adults, peers and family?
Educators to share their own expertise, while recognizing the expertise of others, as they communicate and make connections with children, other educators, families and communities? Communities to recognize starting school as a significant life event in the lives of children and their families?
In what ways do transition approaches recognize: Family hopes for positive educational outcomes for their children? The aspirational importance of education within communities? How do transition approaches respect the expectations of: Children to learn, face challenges and have access to support? Families to have their knowledge recognized and valued? Educators to access appropriate support and professional recognition? Communities to attend to the wellbeing of all children and the promotion of active citizenship?
How do transition approaches reflect entitlements of: All children to access high quality educational environments? Equity and excellence in all interactions with children, families, educators and communities?
Professional recognition for educators — across prior-to-school and school sectors? Communities to be engaged as contributors to educational environments?
EBSCOhost | | Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness.
Transition is a time of both continuity and change. A great deal of focus is directed towards the changes — or discontinuities — encountered during the transition; changes such as the environment physical and educationalpedagogy and curriculum, expectations, rules and routines.
Pedagogical approaches in schools and prior-to-school settings can promote, or inhibit, continuity of learning for children.
An integral part of this is cross-sectoral communication, where educators in early childhood and school settings communicate regularly to support the sharing of information. It is important that this research base not be dismissed, as many of the decisions and influences relevant to successful transitions are drawn from individual beliefs, experiences and expectations, as well as locally relevant and constructed understanding of school and who succeeds in school. Fewer studies have explored more diverse contexts — such as schools and communities in rural, regional or remote areas, or involving younger children and their transitions experiences.
Research gaps are also noted in the factors identified and studied in relation to school and community influences on transition to school. While many studies identify risk factors, vulnerabilities, or the impact of disadvantage on children and their transitions to school, fewer explore the strengths inherent among families, schools and communities.
Assumptions about disadvantage and deficit can color the issues explored. Conclusions Starting school successfully is a social and communal endeavour. Where children and their families feel connected to schools, valued, respected and supported in schools and communities, they are likely to engage positively with school, with the result that not only children and families but also schools and communities benefit.
When the reverse occurs, with children and families feeling alienated from school and unsupported in the community, communities and those within them suffer. Implications In order to meet increasing pressures for greater accountability of academic outcomes, it can be tempting to focus on increasing the readiness requirements of individual children as they start school. Policy perspectives that support the roles of schools and communities in transition are based on: Transition from early childhood education to school.
Ministry of Education; Rosier K, McDonald M. Promoting positive education and care transitions for children. Communities and Families Clearinghouse Resource Sheet; Accessed February 17, Dockett S, Perry B. A resource to support effective transition to school and school age care. Britto P, Limlingan M.
School readiness and transitions. What does it mean for Indigenous children, families, schools and communities? Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; Australian and international research about starting school. International Journal of Early Years Education ;21 Transitions in the lifecourse. Ecclestone K, Biesta G.
Transitions and learning through the lifecourse. Griebel W, Niesel R. A developmental psychology perspective in Germany: Co-construction of transitions between family and education system by the child, parents and pedagogues. New Zealand Ministry of Education; From child care to school: Bronfenbrenner U, Morris P.
The bioecological model of human development. Handbook of child psychology, Vol. Theoretical models of human development, 6th ed.
- Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness
- School readiness
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The life course as developmental theory. The answer is readiness- now what is the question? Early Education and Development ;17 1: The Cultural Nature of Human Development. Oxford University Press; Families and the transition to school. Times of opportunity, expectation, aspiration and entitlement. Rethinking readiness in early childhood education: Implications for policy and practice. Setting out quality goals and regulations. A quality toolbox for early childhood education and care.
Published October 1, Updated December 22, The results of the mediation mediate the effect of these two environmental char- model and the absence of a genetic correlation acteristics on SR.
Our results are also consistent with contribute to SR. Hoff in detail in the following section. We found a partial was more complex than initially expected: The indi- mediation of the effect of SES by exposure to read- rect contribution of SES to SR was accounted for by ing, our proximal measure of home environment mediation through expressive vocabulary and also quality and thus found evidence for specific effects, by an indirect effect via both exposure to reading but could not rule out a global effect of SES on and child expressive vocabulary.
This result sug- language development.
As Hoff noted, it is not gests two processes by which SES affects early lan- known whether the environmental specificity princi- guage skills: Moreover, is predictive of greater exposure to reading, which the remaining direct effect of SES in our study could in turn has a positive effect on SR, an indirect be mediated by unmeasured variables.
Exposure to reading made a direct contribu- early language skills could act as a protective factor tion to SR and an indirect contribution through in preacademic and academic development, as Bur- child expressive vocabulary. These results are globally consistent with our Although significant, the direct and indirect proposed model of the processes leading to the effects of the environmental variables on SR were Predictors of School Readiness small.
This is not surprising in the context of a lon- Kovas et al. Network,in which correlations between pre- Children learn vocabulary and basic knowledge dictor, mediator, and outcome variables ranged from competent adults in the context of specific from nonsignificant to. These results may reflect in part the diffi- economical, etc.
It may family environment, child language, and SR is also indicate that the strongest environmental influ- influenced by a genotype—environment correlation ences on SR are found later than 32 months.
Obviously, these explanations are expressive vocabulary and SR was not explained by not mutually exclusive. Previous genetically Given that SR is one of the best predictors informative studies reviewed by Kovas et al.
Considering that our main goal ment matters gives even more support to family- was to test a model of environmental influences, oriented prevention programs aimed at early the concurrent test for a possible genetic mediation development. Indeed, the child language skills is a significant contribution of this study. This indicates that environmental pro- between language and SR is surprising. Plomin cesses contributing to the acquisition of basic and Kovas demonstrated convincingly that knowledge are not limited to the late preschool finding a common genetic basis for different cogni- years, but begin much earlier in infancy.
This is tive abilities and disabilities is the norm rather consistent with results from studies of early than the exception.
School Psychology Review
On the contrary, our findings showed that between children and their environment in any environment rather than genes is responsible for form of learning.
It follows that interventions aimed the predictive association between early language at raising the quality of child language at a very skills and SR. Furthermore, we found that common early age may have enduring results well into the environment is the most important source of sta- late preschool years and beyond.
We pro- Successful intervention programs with a focus pose three possible explanations for this on the early years and improved child language discrepancy. First, the children in this study were before school entry have shown positive contribu- younger than those in the studies reviewed by tions to early school success Landry, Swank, Forget-Dubois et al.
These studies have shown that the may have been more likely to inherit favorable language development and literacy skills of chil- environments and vice versa. This would not inval- dren living in poverty can be substantially idate the idea that home environment has an increased by interventions targeting early language important effect on SR; it would rather imply that skills.
Such interventions would probably benefit genetic factors would also be likely to grow up in a more children living in impoverished environ- protective environment. In such a case, children at ments, thus reducing the gap between low-SES and risk would be likely to benefit more from interven- middle-class children at school entry.
Exposure of children to reading and reading Another limitation concerns the variables used in material is one early parental behavior that has the longitudinal model. Although we chose vari- repeatedly been shown to contribute positively not ables measured prior to 30 months, we cannot only to early reading skills e.
Thus, the model Britto et al. The child- presented in this article represents a plausible expla- directed joint-attention episodes that joint reading nation of the relation between various environmen- promotes have been repeatedly shown to provide tal influences and child outcomes, but does not the best environment for early learning Tomasello demonstrate causal relations. Finally, joint reading provides the use of a single informant, the mother, for the age-appropriate material in an attractive format measure of expressive vocabulary in both twins.
For all of these reasons, early expo- dent. Furthermore, the mother was also the only sure to reading may be one of the more potent informant for the measures of SES and exposure to learning experiences of early childhood.
However, the questions from which these measures were derived left little room for interpreta- Limitations tion so it is unlikely that the results would have been This study, as are most genetically informative very different had our sources for the environmental studies, is limited by the difficulty to control for measures been independent. Finally, we measured the effects of genotype—environment correlations.Family and Community Engagement
All these limitations underline the difficulty provide a context for the interpretation of a nonge- of assessing the quality of the home setting and the netic model. Even though our results strongly favor near impossibility to assess characteristics of the an environmental process linking child language home setting that may differ for each twin.
This and SR, we cannot claim that our analysis dis- study needs to be replicated with better, indepen- missed all genetic influences on the mediation pro- dent measures of language and home environment.
The con- clusion of the genetic analysis is limited to The aim of this study was to assess the role of showing no evidence of a direct genetic effect at early language skills in the process through which work in the tested mediation process and that, at the quality of home environment and academic the very least, environmental influences on this SR become associated.
Concurrently, we assessed process far outweigh any genetic influences. If a the genetic and environmental etiology of the genotype—environment correlation is present, chil- association between early language skills and SR. Associations with school sure to reading on SR. Moreover, the genetically readiness in low-income African American families. Social risk and protective child, environment on SR as there was no evidence of a parenting, and child care factors in early elementary genetic correlation between early language skills school years.
Science and Practice, 6, 79— If a genetic effect was involved in the pro- Bus, A. Attachment and bookreading patterns: We conclude that a stimulating family environ- of mothers, fathers, and their toddlers. Joint Book reading makes for success in learning environment, or through surrogate parenting, aim- to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational trans- ing at improving child language and SR through mission of literacy.
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