# Pneumatic pressure and flow relationship

### Air Flow, Air Systems, Pressure, and Fan Performance

Pressure, no. But pressure difference, yes. Think simple. There's little to no engineering knowledge required for this: take a syringe, an ordinary syringe, and fill it. This application note will describe the basic relationships between air velocity and the pressure generated by air flow. Anyone who has put their hand out the. A simplified method, the additivity method, provides the flow characteristics of a system The b value is the critical pressure ratio for the component, that is, the.

A local loss coefficient can be related to different velocities; it is important to know which part of the velocity profile is relevant. Frictional Pressure Frictional losses in duct sections are result from air viscosity and momentum exchange among particles moving with different velocities. These losses also contribute negligible losses or gains in air systems unless there are extremely long duct runs or there are significant sections using flex duct.

Total Pressure, Velocity Pressure, and Static Pressure It is convenient to calculate pressures in ducts using as a base an atmospheric pressure of zero.

## The Relationship Between Pressure and Flow in a Compressed Air System

Airflow through a duct system creates three types of pressures: Each of these pressures can be measured. Air conveyed by a duct system imposes both static and dynamic velocity pressures on the duct's structure. The static pressure is responsible for much of the force on the duct walls. However, dynamic velocity pressure introduces a rapidly pulsating load.

Animation : Relationship of Pressure with Volume and Temperature

Static pressure Static pressure is the measure of the potential energy of a unit of air in the particular cross section of a duct. Air pressure on the duct wall is considered static. Imagine a fan blowing into a completely closed duct; it will create only static pressure because there is no air flow through the duct. A balloon blown up with air is a similar case in which there is only static pressure.

Dynamic velocity pressure Dynamic pressure is the kinetic energy of a unit of air flow in an air stream.

Dynamic pressure is a function of both air velocity and density: Total Pressure Consists of the pressure the air exerts in the direction of flow Velocity Pressure plus the pressure air exerts perpendicular to the plenum or container through which the air moves.

Air Systems For kitchen ventilation applications an air system consists of hood sduct work, and fan s. The relationship between the air flow rate CFM and the pressure of an air system is expressed as an increasing exponential function.

The graph below shows an example of a system curve. I arrived early the next morning, and the compressor setting was at psig discharge pressure, just where it was supposed to be.

### Transair Quick Connection Piping : Air : Water : Gas Pipe

However, as the day got hotter I witnessed just what the owner had said — the discharge pressure began to fall. I instructed the owner to have those two valves closed. When we arrived back at the compressor, the machine was at full pressure. Therefore, out of these two relatively small leaks, the hp compressor was losing essentially one tenth of its overall capacity. A comical fact when conducting a full plant air audit both supply side and demand side is that in many cases the largest event that spikes the system is a shift change.

Because production workers typically blow off their workstations between shift changes. What is the Relationship Between Flow and Pressure? A plant has a hp rotary screw compressor rated at acfm at psig.

However, they can only maintain 80 psig in the production area. How much more compressor hp does the plant need to maintain the required psig in the plant header?

What is the Cost of Over-Pressurizing the System?

The artificial demand in this case is 25 psig. A rule of thumb to remember is that for every 2-psi increase in discharge pressure, the energy measured at the compressor goes up by 1 percent. Obviously, there are pressure drops across the clean-up equipment dryers and filterswhich could equate to 10 to 15 psig or more.

But if the system was properly sized and maintained, this should be easily factored into what to set the discharge pressure of the compressor. Assuming that the clean-up equipment and piping distribution system were poorly sized and maintained, which equates to a psig pressure drop, you could still cut the pressure on the compressor operating at psig to psig, and still maintain the desired 75 psig on the production floor.

Dialing the pressure down by 25 psig, the plant could save To calculate the energy savings, use the energy equation below: To calculate kW, multiply BHP by the constant.