Luthans-et-al——Positive-Psychological-Capital-Measurement-and- Relationship-With-Performance-and-Satisfaction-copy. Luthans, Fred; Avolio, Bruce J.; Avey, James B.; and Norman, Steven M., " Positive Psychological Capital: Measurement and. Relationship with Performance and. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL: MEASUREMENT AND RELATIONSHIP WITH PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION. Personnel Psychology, 60(3).
Positive psychological capital - Wikipedia
Newman, Ucbasaran [ 12 ] also stated in their meta-analysis that besides predicting higher levels of work-family conflict, low PsyCap predicts less meaning of life, things that should result in a decrease in life satisfaction.
Lastly it has been reported that life satisfaction is positively related to optimism and self-esteem [ 34 ], posing another connection to PsyCap. For these reasons, we expect a moderate to high positive correlation between the CPC and life satisfaction. Subjective well-being Since well-being is measured in many studies as a compound construct consisting of positive and negative affect, life satisfaction and job satisfaction [ 3536 ], PsyCap, as expected, positively relates to well-being [ 2237 — 39 ].
Avey, Luthans [ 38 ] furthermore show that PsyCap can lead to psychological well-being over time. We therefore expect a high positive correlation between subjective well-being and the CPC Findings from Karademas [ 41 ] support those claims as he reports a direct positive relationship between social support and life satisfaction as well as an indirect one through optimism.
Optimistic people seem to positively appraise future events. Social support has furthermore not only been found to increase optimism [ 4142 ] but also to be associated with self-esteem [ 42 ]. We expect a small to moderate positive correlation between perceived social support and the CPC situated at the lower edge of the range stated above.Improving Positive Psychological Capital by Involving People
Meaning of Work When looking at meaning, its importance not only in the field of work, but for life in general [ 44 ], becomes clear. It is not just a positive influence on organizational performance or employee engagement [ 45 ]. Again there is a positive relationship with PsyCap as Coutu [ 46 ] reported a strong relationship between meaning-making and resilience.
She stated that one of the things distinguishing resilient people from less resilient people is their ability to create significance and meaning in their hardships and their lives in general. In addition, she reported the effective use of constructing meaning in resilience trainings for business people.
Resilient people are more likely to see themselves not as victims in adversity, but rather to recognize the lesson and learning opportunity in their hardship. They are therefore able to create meaning in difficult situations in life and at work [ 46 ]. The fact that a sense of self-worth and efficacy are found to be two important pillars in the search for meaning [ 47 ], and the finding that lower levels of PsyCap seem to result in lower levels of meaning of life [ 12 ] underline the positive relationship between meaning of work and PsyCap.
- Positive Psychological Capital : Measurement and Relationship with Performance and Satisfaction
- Positive psychological capital
We expect a moderate positive correlation between the CPC and meaning of work. Engagement Engagement is characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption [ 48 ]. Vigor is a very similar construct to resilience as Bakker, Schaufeli [ 48 ] describe vigorous people as mentally resilient, willing to put great effort into their work and to show persistence in the face of adversity. Resilience is not the only personal resource that has been found to reciprocally influence work engagement [ 4849 ].
Self-efficacy as well as optimism have been found to be equally connected to engagement [ 5051 ]. We therefore expect a solid moderate positive correlation between engagement and the CPC in about a similar range as stated above. Gratitude The close relationship of gratitude and PsyCap was demonstrated in a study by Luthans, Youssef [ 52 ], in which they discussed a range of possible constructs to be included into PsyCap.
They find that gratitude prevents people from having negative labels and thoughts about their fellow men, thus decreasing the positivity in those relationships, which would in turn lead to a lower level of PsyCap. They state that being grateful helps us to maintain a positive outlook on life and positively reinforce each other.
Maintaining a positive view on life resembles parts of optimism and hope.
This is also reflected in other studies, which found positive relationships between gratitude and optimism [ 53 — 55 ], hope [ 54 ] and life satisfaction and happiness [ 55 ]. Considering the connection of gratitude to some of the PsyCap components and its actual consideration as a component itself, we expect a moderate positive correlation of gratitude with the CPC It means for a person to have an enhanced ability and desire to control the surrounding environment in an active, self-determined way.
These control tendencies facilitate effective coping with occupational stressors [ 56 ], thus showing similarities to resilience.
Optimism also seems closely related to a proactive attitude. Schmitz and Schwarzer [ 58 ] identify optimistic expectancy as the quintessence of the construct and describe proactive people as considering life to be full of opportunities.
We therefore expect a moderate to high positive correlation between proactive attitude and the CPC The positive correlation with extraversion seems logical as it has also been found to be positively related to positive affect, life satisfaction and happiness [ 27 ].
Neurotic people are vulnerable to emotional distress and susceptible to negative emotions and poor coping [ 60 ]. They furthermore explicate that the positive relationship with resilience can be fully explained by the tendency of conscientious people to use task-oriented coping. Study 1—Methods Participants and Procedure Study 1 consisted of a total of participants. Thirteen people were excluded from the analysis six due to implausible or missing job description e.
Measuring Psychological Capital: Construction and Validation of the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12)
The remaining participants averaged Participants worked on average Participants were recruited by publishing the link to the survey in several online social media groups. The survey was conducted in German. All participants were volunteers, no compensation was supplied. The German version of this scale was derived by translating the original version of the State Hope Scale [ 23 ] into German including a retranslation for verification purposes according to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation proposed by Guillemin, Bombardier [ 61 ].
Optimism Optimism was evaluated using two different scales. Self-efficacy Self-efficacy was evaluated using two different measures. Psychological capital PsyCap was surveyed using the German version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire [ 19 ] with 24 items.
Six items each measured the four subscales hope, optimism, resilience and self-efficacy. All four constructs i. PsyCap can be developed Both experimental  and longitudinal  research indicates the state-like nature of PsyCap and that it can be developed and cause performance to improve.
PsyCap can be extended beyond work into other life domains such as relationships and health Recent research has found that measures of "Relationship PsyCap" and "Health PsyCap" are related to both individual's respective satisfaction appraisals and desired objective outcomes such as time spent with family and friend in the cases of relationships and cholesterol and BMI in the case of health. When combined with work satisfaction, these three are related to overall well-being. Now after almost a decade of theory building  and research, PsyCap is widely recognized throughout the world and is being applied in positive leadership  and human resource development and performance management programs in all types of organizations - businesses, health, education, military and athletics Link with emotional capital[ edit ] Emotional capital EKa capital in an economic sense: The link with Emotional Capital EK: Emotional Capital Gendron B.
It's the economics approach of the psychological parts and behaviors skills of human beings not innate but produced. Precisely, The emotional capital Gendron, relates to the set of emotional competencies defined on the emotional intelligence models and complete the human capital approach where such skills were missing in the Human capital evaluation and returns.
The emotional capital EK approach and concept is filling the gap of the Becker's Human capital measurement approach. It brings outcomes and makes a bridge between outcomes from psychology and economics. EK is a crucial capital as it impacts people's learning processes, especially for children and young people at risk, enables their balanced human development, which participates to better social cohesion, smoother human relationships, their future successful life in the society and already to their school retention and success.
Emotional capital has specific characteristics related to emotional competencies. Emotional capital is a crucial capital: If social, cultural and, human capitals are often complementary Coleman,emotional capital has a particular place among them. It is first a catalyser as it is essential for the constitution of the human capital.
Indeed, human capital constitution might never happen if basic or appropriate emotional capital is not there. Only ad hoc emotional capital will allow human capital formation. Also, emotional capital is a potentionalizing — boostering- capital more than a simple additional capital as it is essential for utilizing effectively the social capital and the Becker Human capital the way it has been restrictedly measured as general knowledge and technical skills.
EK is a crucial capital as it impacts people's learning processes, especially for children and young people at risk, enables balanced human development, which participates in social cohesion, smoother human relationships, future successful life in the society and already to their school retention and success and as well as at work.
In the work context, it improves the performance and well-being at work and especially when the managers have developed themselves the adhoc emotional capital to be mindful and benevolent manager Gendron et al.
PsyCap mediates between supportive climate and employee performance  - Psycap PsyCap and positive supportive climate are necessary for human resources in order to achieve stable organizational growth. High PsyCap Employees supports effective organizational change  Organizational change is defined as a lack of fit with the environment which intensifies as a result of a gap between the organizational goals and its present outcomes.
PsyCap can be developed  Both experimental   and longitudinal  research indicates the state-like nature of PsyCap and that it can be developed and cause performance to improve. PsyCap can be extended beyond work into other life domains such as relationships and health  Recent research has found that measures of "Relationship PsyCap" and "Health PsyCap" are related to both individual's respective satisfaction appraisals and desired objective outcomes such as time spent with family and friend in the cases of relationships and cholesterol and BMI in the case of health.
Now after almost a decade of theory building  and research, PsyCap is widely recognized throughout the world and is being applied in positive leadership   and human resource development and performance management programs in all types of organizations - businesses, health, education, military and athletics. Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage, Organizational Dynamics, 33 2 The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior.
Journal of Organizational behavior, 23, Going beyond human and social capital. Business Horizons, 47 1 Measurement and relationship with performance and job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22, The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate - employee performance relation-ship.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29 2 Background, retrospective analysis and future directions.