Salt and hypertension relationship

Blood pressure - World Action on Salt & Health

salt and hypertension relationship

The relationship of salt to hypertension. Louis. Tobian,'. 2. M.D.. This paper will attempt to relate sodium to hypertension. To begin, we will set down the major. Citation: Mandapaka RT, Rachabathuni S () Prevalence of Hypertension and its Relationship between Dietary Salt Intake in Urban Population. Introduction. While some evidence suggests that obesity coupled with a lack of exercise is an important factor involved in the development of high blood.

However, lowering blood pressure may help to alleviate some of the problems and reduce the risk of greater damage. If this happens, then the part of the heart that was receiving the blood no longer gets the oxygen and nutrients it needs and dies. The result is a heart attack. The best way to prevent a heart attack is to stop the arteries becoming damaged. And one of the best ways of doing this is keep your blood pressure down by eating less salt.

Eating too much salt raises your risk of a stroke Brain The raised blood pressure caused by eating too much salt may damage the arteries leading to the brain. At first, it may cause a slight reduction in the amount of blood reaching the brain.

This may lead to dementia known as vascular dementia. With this condition the cells in the brain don't work as well as they should because they are not receiving enough oxygen and nutrients. If this happens, then the part of the brain that was receiving the blood no longer gets the oxygen and nutrients it needs and dies.

Salt and your health, Part I: The sodium connection - Harvard Health

Harmony is a Precious Treasure of Human Life [ 2 ]. Minimal intake of salt or any nutrient helps us attain good health and prevents the body from contacting any disease. I wonder if that has worked with many saints and sages who practiced this age-old technique of preparing food in the most traditional ways and passed the baton to us, the younger generation. But, for that too, controlling the intake of salt, junk foods and last but not the least, soft drinks, as a part of our regular dietary routine, helps us a lot in achieving healthy nutritional status.

Henceforth, therein, lays the adept and adamant importance of taking our food and regular diets, by adding salt, sugar, and fat in the most minimal amounts, if not refraining its use on a permanent basis. For us, in particular, to be frank lineout what has been just put a few words back, it all depends on how we control our mind.

Indeed, it all depends on the mental will to control the appetite of spice and salt and the will and wit of our magnetizing saliva to attract many a flavored dish [ 3 ]. Despite the wealth of evidence for unfavorable effects of salt consumption on BP and cardiovascular health, public health efforts to decrease sodium consumption have been limited to a few countries [ 4 ].

Individuals are often unaware of the detrimental effect of salt on health and in developed countries; the majority of salt consumed is hidden in processed foods [ 5 ].

Studies like these were done and conducted successfully in the European countries too. In a national survey of UK children aged years, dietary salt intake was positively associated with total fluid consumption and the rewash a weak, but statistically significant, positive association with Sugar-Sweetened Beverage SSB consumption [ 6 ].

In another study it has been suggested that in an environment where soft drinks are readily available, a high salt diet may encourage greater consumption of soft drinks in children [ 7 ]. Research on salt and its consumption is being carried out since a long long time.

salt and hypertension relationship

In adults, the quantitative relationship between salt intake and fluid consumption is well documented by both observational epidemiological studies and controlled trials where salt intake was altered. It has been estimated that reducing salt intake by half, e. However, there are no studies in children that have looked at the relationship between salt intake and fluid consumption [ 6 ].

Added to this, a small shift in the distribution of population blood pressure levels would provide considerable gains to cardiovascular health in adulthood [ 8 ]. The above researched reports give us an important, albeit clear picture in the advancement of research. They say, therein lies much more importance of evaluating and supervening the daily consumption of salt among the population and we have to identify and evaluate certain measures that will enhance a minimal intake of salt in daily diets, if not to a maximum.

Review of Literature Salt is one the essential nutrients, and is tightly regulated by the human body. But, when taken in amounts more than required, it does produce a few adverse effects. Through this section, we would like to highlight a few studies wherein past research has been conducted on this very interesting topic and wherein future research invites many questions to be eruditely answered for.

One of the most important constituents in salt is sodium, which is required for a range of physiologic processes.

Salt's effects

The osmotic properties of sodium make it a determinant of the extracellular fluid ECF volume, including plasma and interstitial volumes.

Therefore, total body sodium determines blood volume and thus blood pressure [ 9 ]. Because of the possibility of cardiovascular overload or collapse from either sodium excess or depletion, mammalians have developed sophisticated feedback mechanisms to precisely regulate sodium intake and excretion, enabling humans to survive at extremes of sodium exposure [ 10 ].

Public health recommendations in most developed countries are to reduce salt intake by about half, i. This is because salt intake is thought to play an important role in regulating population blood pressure in epidemiological, migration, intervention, genetic, and animal studies [ 11 ]. Tight regulation of total body sodium is required to maintain extracellular fluid volume, ensuring organ perfusion and preventing cardiovascular volume overload or collapse.

salt and hypertension relationship

Regulation of sodium balance occurs through a complex interplay between neurohumoral and intra-renal mechanisms, which ultimately aim to maintain ECF volume and arterial blood pressure [ 12 ]. Should sodium depletion result in a reduction in blood volume great enough to cause a systemic fall in arterial pressure, the mechanical stretch of the arterial baro receptor nerve endings situated in the aorta and carotid sinus would be reduced, causing further activation of the sympathetic nervous system [ 13 - 15 ].

A study conducted in Panama on lifestyle interventions of sodium intake and overall health, said, independently of type of hypertensionall patients need to be educated on lifestyle modifications in such areas as physical activity, stress reduction, avoidance of tobacco use, alcohol intake moderation, weight control, sodium intake reduction, maintaining cholesterol and triglycerides in normal ranges and rest.

Weight control guidelines recommend including fruit in all meals, avoiding sugar drinks, drinking at least eight glasses of water a day, to avoid the intake of simple sugars like chocolates, candies and others, eating salads both at lunch and dinner time, small portions of meals, regular schedules for eating, no fried food, choosing grilled over fried meals and using low fat products [ 16 ].

In addition, savvy consumers are finally switching from red meat to fish, poultry, and legumes to get the protein they need. It's heartening progress, but it overlooks another nutrient that's responsible for more thanAmerican deaths a year, about three times more than prostate cancer.

salt and hypertension relationship

The hidden nutrient is not a fat or carbohydrate, and it doesn't pack any calories. The forgotten nutrient is salt. A grain of history In today's world, salt is abundant and cheap, but it wasn't always that way. Salt was hard to come by for our earliest ancestors, who got along quite nicely on about a tenth of today's average use in the United States.

In time, people learned how to find salt and extract it from the earth. But it was hard work and salt was scarce, so it became a valuable commodity that was used for currency. In fact, the word salary is derived from the Latin word for salt.

Blood pressure - Action on Salt

Perhaps because it was rare and expensive, salt carried a certain prestige; even today, a successful man is "worth his salt" and a good man is "the salt of the earth. It found a valuable role as a food preservative, and the average consumption soared to as much as 7, milligrams mg a day in the 19th century.

Salt has long since outlived its use as a preservative, but our hankering for sodium lingers on, with daily consumption in America averaging 3, mg. Because of this acquired preference, salt is a big business: A glossary Each molecule of ordinary salt is composed of an atom of sodium Na joined to an atom of chloride Cl ; the chemical designation is NaCl.

Because chloride is heavier than sodium, it contributes more to the weight of the molecule. But when it comes to health, it's the sodium that counts, whether it comes from table salt or from other sources, such as baking soda sodium bicarbonate or MSG monosodium glutamate.

Because sodium is what matters, food labels list the content of sodium, not salt; it's expressed as milligrams mg of sodium.

Most current dietary guidelines also specify milligrams of sodium, and it's the designation used by this and many other publications. But some nutritional information is still expressed in milligrams mg or grams g of salt.

And to make things even more confusing, many research papers use another unit, millimoles mmol. Milligrams will do nicely for most of us; it's complex enough, especially if you're not used to the metric system. But if you encounter the other terminology, you can make your own conversions using these round numbers: It's the sodium, stupid For chemists, a salt is any molecule that forms when positively and negatively charged atoms bond with each other.

But when the atoms are sodium and chloride, the compound takes the name salt all to itself. For physicians, sodium is the key element in salt.

It's a crucial as well as controversial substance; perhaps that's why its name evolved from the Arabic suda, "a splitting headache. The average adult's body contains grams g of sodium — less than 9 ounces, or about the amount in three or four saltshakers.

salt and hypertension relationship

Distributed throughout the body, salt is especially plentiful in body fluids ranging from blood, sweat, and tears to semen and urine. Sodium is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, always bringing water along with it. It is the major mineral in plasma, the fluid component of blood, and in the fluids that bathe the body's cells.

Without enough sodium, all these fluids would lose their water, causing dehydration, low blood pressure, and death. Fortunately, it only takes a tiny amount of sodium to prevent this doomsday scenario; in fact, some isolated population groups manage perfectly well on just mg a day.

About one-quarter of the tongue's taste buds are devoted to recognizing salt; like other animals, humans can — and do — seek out salt when they need it.