Psychology Perspectives | Simply Psychology
Understand the core premises of biological psychology and the early thinkers. perspective in relation to a discussion of free will in his text Psychology: An in various areas of psychology (e.g., behaviourist, biological, cognitive) reflects a Among the most negative factors, traumatic injury and drugs can lead to. Biological and cognitive psychology relate to each other by focusing on What is Cognitive Psychology; The Relationship Between Biological. The relationship between biological cognitive and psychosocial  In addition to the psychological problems, families with low birth weight.
You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong. Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.
Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior. For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior. Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology.
Behaviorist Perspective If your layperson's idea of psychology has always been about people in laboratories wearing white coats and watching hapless rats try to negotiate mazes in order to get to their dinner, then you are probably thinking about behavioral psychology. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people and animals as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment.
Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors called stimuli affect observable behavior called the response. The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated with the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies. These include systematic desensitization for phobias step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once and aversion therapy.
Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior. Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person's motive.
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Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology e. Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior. Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units.
Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language. There must be biological factors involved.
Psychodynamic Perspective Who hasn't heard of Sigmund Freud? So many expressions of our daily life come from Freud's theories of psychoanalysis - subconscious, denial, repression and anal personality to name only a few. Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life. Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences.
It is the original psychodynamic theory and inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories. Freud, the founder of psychoanalysisexplained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior.
Freud used three main methods of accessing the unconscious mind: He believed that the unconscious mind consisted of three components: The 'id' and the 'superego' are constantly in conflict with each other, and the 'ego' tries to resolve the discord. If this conflict is not resolved, we tend to use defense mechanisms to reduce our anxiety.
Psychoanalysis attempts to help patients resolve their inner conflicts. An aspect of psychoanalysis is Freud's theory of psychosexual development. It shows how early experiences affect adult personality. Stimulation of different areas of the body is important as the child progresses through the important developmental stages. Too much or too little can have bad consequences later.
The most important stage is the phallic stage where the focus of the libido is on the genitals. During this stage little boys experience the 'Oedipus complex,' and little girls experience the 'Electra complex. However, it has been criticized in the way that it over emphasizes the importance of sexuality and under emphasized of the role of social relationships.
The theory is not scientific, and can't be proved as it is circular. Nevertheless, psychoanalysis has been greatly contributory to psychology in that it has encouraged many modern theorists to modify it for the better, using its basic principles, but eliminating its major flaws. Humanism Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person know as holism. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior, not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving.
Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to his inner feelings and self-image. The humanistic perspective centers on the view that each person is unique and individual, and has the free will to change at any time in his or her lives. The humanistic perspective suggests that we are each responsible for our own happiness and well-being as humans.
From stratified sampling and cluster sampling according to the percentage of population in each of the cities of Isfahan Province was used.
The data was gathered with a questionnaire prepared by the researcher in order to evaluate the biological cognitive and psychosocial characteristics of mothers, in addition to the Enrich marital satisfaction test.
- Compare and Contrast the Cognitive and Biological approaches
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After collecting data, the analysis of the data was done with SPSS software in two categories of descriptive and inferential statistics by using logistic regression model. The results showed that the prevalence of low weight infants was 9. Twenty-nine percent of mothers had marital dissatisfaction.
The average of weight gain during pregnancies was 9 kilograms. Thirty three percent of mothers had high blood pressure during pregnancy, The results were consisting with the previous findings and indicated that some of the applicable benefits of this research can be recording of information about each delivery in the whole country with holding training workshops of before and during pregnancy skills by welfare organization.
It is also a reliable sign of intrauterine growth. These infants are even at a higher risk of mortality before the age of Minor low birth weight LBWwhich means the weight of less than grams, very low birth weight VLBW which means the weight of less than grams and extremely low birth weight ELBWwhich is used for infants whose weight is less than g at the moment of birth.
Prematurely born infants are those who are born before 37th week of a full time pregnancy days. Thus, by determining and controlling risk factors, which are often related to environment and society, we can prevent the birth of lbw infants. Because the distribution of lbw infants is not the same in different hygienic and social environments, this obligates the examination of this problem in different environments.
The amount of lbw infants in developed countries and in developing countries has been reported about 4 and Low birth weight problem is either due to prematurely born infants, or problems of intrauterine growth. Factors related to LBW are: The end of fetal period and the initiation of neonatal period have the highest number of mortality and all infants who die by the 28th day of their birth, die in this period.
This mortal rate is one of the most important hygienic indicators in every society, influenced by different factors such as conditions before pregnancy, mother, and fetus and during the birth In the United States, there has been an increase in the number of lbw infants due to an increase in the number of premature births. These infants are at higher risk of mortality than those who lack this problem.
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One of them is the weight of the infant at the moment of birth, because this is not only related to the quality of food, conditions of care during pregnancy, and the social environment of mothers, but to the process of growth and natural maturation of the infant. Their brain growth is incomplete and they will face different disorders.
It is also related to visual and kinesthetic problems and also to brain paralysis. This study was carried out in order to provide information based for developing a preventive program the main objectives of the program are: To lower the infant mortality and the expenses of caring lbw infants.
To lower disorders due to low birth weight such as respiratory and heart problems, mental retardation, learning disorders, visual and kinesthetic problems and brain paralysis. To increase the mental hygienic level of families, because the mental atmosphere of family has an influence on mental health of parents and children.
Most of researches about lbw, conducted in Iran, have been conducted based on medical and paramedical view, in medicine, hygiene and nutrition universities and there has been paid little attention to psychological aspects such as the attitude of mother towards pregnancy, mental readiness, satisfaction between parents, depression and stress during pregnancy, violence in family and emotional atmosphere.
One of the most important strategies for preventing paralysis is through lowering the rate of lbw and premature infants. The population of this study is all the infants born in private or public hospitals and maternity hospitals in Isfahan in The sample of present study is alive infants, who were selected through random selection.
The sampling of this study was done in three phases: Stratum sampling based on seasons, in other words, dividing the sample in every city based on four seasons. Cluster sampling, which is selecting one day in each season randomly for sampling and selecting all the births in that day and the days after, until we had enough questionnaire.
In this study, we used Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire a 47 items and 5 alternatives test with alpha level of 0. The alpha level of this questionnaire in was 0. The method used was that after primary studies and gathering questionnaires, we wrote the final questionnaire of the study. In order to achieve the content validity of the questionnaire, we counseled three persons mastered in the field and the questionnaire performed on a 20 persons sample, the alpha level was calculated which was 0.
We used SPSS program for analysis of the data. In descriptive part and in inferential statistics, frequency distribution of variables and the logistic regression model was used respectively. Table 1 shows the frequency distribution of biological, cognitive and mental-social features of parents and lbw infants. Table 1 The frequency distribution of demographic information of parents and lbw infants based on different variables in Isfahan province in In inferential statistics regression multiple logistic models was used and the meaningful variables entered into the model in this analysis were shown in Table 2 under B multiples tab.
Table 2 Multiples of regression model and standard deviation and the chance ratio of risk factors of lbw infants Open in a separate window Multiple regression logistic analysis in stepwise method shows that there is a meaningful relationship between mothers activity and resting, mother's height, Apgar score, abnormal sibling, mother's knowledge about cares during pregnancy, mother's bleeding and mother's poisoning and these may strikingly leads to the birth of lbw infants.
In this study there is no meaningful relationship between father's biological features weight, age and height and the birth of lbw infants. The results show that there is a meaningful relationship between the cognitive features of parents level of education, cognitive abilities, and knowledge about cares during gestation and low birth weight of neonatal infants, this relationship is significant for knowledge about mother about cares during pregnancy.
The reason of the increase in the rate of lbw infants in this research in comparison to researches conducted in America and Europe is due to different factors such as financial-social, nutrition, cares during pregnancy, age of gestation, intervals between gestations and diseases during gestation.
There was found no meaningful relationship in the gender of lbw infants, though WHO, reports that the female gender is at higher risk of being low birth weight.