Ecology/Energy in ecosystems - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Ecology: The study of the interrelationships between living organisms and the living During photosynthesis, plants capture light energy with their chlorophyll and use it to A food chain or food web comprises a sequence of organisms through which Only about 10% of the calories in plant matter survive from First to the. A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. Animals cannot make their own food so they must eat plants and/or other animals. usually the first step on the food chain or food web or first trophic level of a food pyramid Again, discuss the connections between primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. An ecosystem is all the living organisms in an area along with the nonliving, or abiotic, Every ecosystem has numerous food chains that interlink to form a food web. directly from the sun, are in the first trophic level; caterpillars, which get their captured by primary producers during photosynthesis on a square meter of.
In an ecosystem, all the organisms that depend on one another in order to eat form a food chain.
Lesson 4: Food Chains | MpalaLive
Plants are at the bottom of this chain. They get their energy from the sun, which allows them to manufacture the substances they need for their development. Most animals depend directly or indirectly on plants. In this way, even carnivores that feed on herbivores depend on the plants that feed their prey.
A superpredator is a carnivorous animal that is not the prey of any other species.
It is at the top of the food chain. Raptors, tigers and wolves are examples of superpredators. The flesh of other animals is the principal food of carnivores. For example, snakes eat small rodents. Decomposers One other group of consumers deserves mention, although it does not always appear in drawings of food chains. This group consists of decomposers, organisms that break down dead organic material and wastes. Decomposers are sometimes considered their own trophic level. As a group, they eat dead matter and waste products that come from organisms at various other trophic levels; for instance, they would happily consume decaying plant matter, the body of a half-eaten squirrel, or the remains of a deceased eagle.
In a sense, the decomposer level runs parallel to the standard hierarchy of primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. Fungi and bacteria are the key decomposers in many ecosystems; they use the chemical energy in dead matter and wastes to fuel their metabolic processes. Other decomposers are detritivores—detritus eaters or debris eaters.Food Chains for Kids: Food Webs, the Circle of Life, and the Flow of Energy - FreeSchool
These are usually multicellular animals such as earthworms, crabs, slugs, or vultures. They not only feed on dead organic matter but often fragment it as well, making it more available for bacterial or fungal decomposers. When they break down dead material and wastes, they release nutrients that can be recycled and used as building blocks by primary producers.
Food webs Food chains give us a clear-cut picture of who eats whom. However, some problems come up when we try and use them to describe whole ecological communities. For instance, an organism can sometimes eat multiple types of prey or be eaten by multiple predators, including ones at different trophic levels.
This is what happens when you eat a hamburger patty! The cow is a primary consumer, and the lettuce leaf on the patty is a primary producer.
To represent these relationships more accurately, we can use a food web, a graph that shows all the trophic—eating-related—interactions between various species in an ecosystem. The diagram below shows an example of a food web from Lake Ontario. Primary producers are marked in green, primary consumers in orange, secondary consumers in blue, and tertiary consumers in purple.
The bottom level of the illustration shows primary producers, which include diatoms, green algae, blue-green algae, flagellates, and rotifers. The next level includes the primary consumers that eat primary producers. These include calanoids, waterfleas, cyclopoids, rotifers and amphipods.
Ecology/Energy in ecosystems
The shrimp also eat primary producers. Primary consumers are in turn eaten by secondary consumers, which are typically small fish. The small fish are eaten by larger fish, the tertiary consumers.
Ask students to name all the different animals that are dependent on the one tree. Give each participant a picture.
First demonstrate a food chain, a simple interdependenceby linking the student with the sun card the source of all energy to the student with the grass card to the student with the zebra card to the student with the lion card. Show the impacts of man on the simple food chain. Cut trees no trees, nothing for grazers to eat, grazers will die, lions and other predators will have nothing to eat.
They will start to eat our livestock. Hunt in excess If we kill the lions, there will be too many zebras and they will need more grass.
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- Lesson 4: Food Chains
- Food chains & food webs
They will eat the grass from our pasturelands. Explain that the interactions in a grasslands system are more complicated than this. Have the participants now stand in a circle, out of order i. Give the ball of string to the person with the sun. Then ask that person to pass the yarn to the person with a card of an organism that the sun supports.
If the sun supports more than one organism in the circle, pass the string back to the sun and from the sun to the other organism that it supports. Continue by asking the plants which organisms they can support and so on. Keep going through the chain until you get to the top consumers. The string will be a tangled web in the middle of the circle.